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Representation of the United Kingdom Pre- and Post- Referendum

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Limited researches have studied on the dissonance of the representations of a destination by using difference induced agents such as government, trade media tourism articles, and visual representations. This study

Limited researches have studied on the dissonance of the representations of a destination by using difference induced agents such as government, trade media tourism articles, and visual representations. This study examines the United Kingdom's image, and determines whether the dissonance exist pre- and post- referendum in the internal imagery of the United Kingdom and imagery portrayed aboard. Leading newspapers from the United States, United Kingdom, and Europe are analyzed to determine the predominant themes. Semi-structured interviews are conducted with the U.S. tour operators and Arizona's travel agents. Tour brochures and user-generated content on TripAdvisor are analyzed to study tourists' responses to Brexit. Skift is analyzed to project future growth in tourism industry. Results show that the leadings newspapers projects similar concerns negatively and positively pre- and post- referendum. Uncertainty in policy changes leads to other themes that are identified such as investment, employment, trade, independence, market growth, etc. It projects the international trade, domestic market growth and global market growth will be significantly impact by Brexit due to higher tariff and regulations on migrants in the United Kingdom. In contrast, travel brochures are marketing UK from heritage, historical attractions, and special events, but they do not reflect the influence of Brexit on how tour operators market UK pre- and post- referendum. Further data is conducted on the semi-structured interviews with travel agents across Arizona, but travel agents responded with Brexit has no influences on US tourists. Additional content analysis on VisitBritain/VisitEngland shows the growth in tourism industry by an increasing provided data collection on tourism performance that reflect there is an increasing departure rate of US tourists in UK after the referendum. User-generated content on TripAdvisor and Skift align with the identified themes in leading newspapers from US, UK, and Europe such as uncertainty in policy change. The present study further outlines preferable method to advance future studies on the destination image of U.K. during and after the Brexit.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Making History: How Save Our Schools Innovated Volunteer Referendums

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State constitutions across the nation grant specific rights to their citizens, and in Arizona, the right to referenda reigns as a key cornerstone of Arizona democracy. However, in the 21st

State constitutions across the nation grant specific rights to their citizens, and in Arizona, the right to referenda reigns as a key cornerstone of Arizona democracy. However, in the 21st century, no referendum effort has succeeded in acquiring the required signatures to halt a bill, and put it before the voters. In the summer of 2017, a volunteer led group called Save Our Schools, set a powerful precedent by successfully collecting over 111,540 signatures to halt Senate Bill 1431, the Empowerment Scholarship Account Expansion. While collecting 36,000 more signatures than what was required, they established the possibility for future volunteer led signature efforts. Despite having little financial or political backing, the group struck an important win for direct democracy. They have set the framework for how future groups can successfully petition government without high dollar fundraising. This study will evaluate the tactics, and strategies they used, so that future efforts have a framework.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05