Matching Items (15)

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An Examination of Communication Practices of Successful Entrepreneur Business Women in the Masculine Business/Corporate Environment

Description

As young women merge into the business world, the business environment structure often asks them to adjust or change their identity to be accepted by their male peers. Such identity

As young women merge into the business world, the business environment structure often asks them to adjust or change their identity to be accepted by their male peers. Such identity changes include adopting masculine forms of professional dress, building relationships in the workplace, and dealing with personal life. Through a qualitative research methodology, the study explores the communication practices that women engage in to succeed in the masculine business/corporate environment. Research indicates various types of limitations in masculine environments in connection with the flexibility of schedule, equal pay, and balance between professional and family life, leading to emotional and psychological impacts. Moreover, findings indicate the use of resistance tools to assist women in the corporate/business environment in leadership mentoring, education, and information found on apps and social media. I highlight practical implications, discuss limitations, and provide recommendations for future directions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Ambivalent Sexism in College Women: Key Beliefs and Outcomes

Description

Gender discrimination and inequality in this day and age points to the existence of ambivalent sexist beliefs. That is, men and women hold outwardly negative or superficially positive sexist beliefs

Gender discrimination and inequality in this day and age points to the existence of ambivalent sexist beliefs. That is, men and women hold outwardly negative or superficially positive sexist beliefs about the innate inferiority of women (Glick & Fiske, 1996; Glick & Fiske, 1997). In the past twenty years, outcomes and effects of women due to these beliefs have been researched extensively. Less common are suggestions or conclusions regarding the underlying existence of these beliefs, though many researchers have related their results to aspects within the Social Identity Theory (1979) and other alike theories involving the self and threats to self. The present study looks at smaller constructs, reporting a relationship between a model of women's identity, including predictors: 1) closeness to women, 2) public regard 3) gender identity centrality, to hostile, benevolent and ambivalent sexist beliefs. A group of N=115 women with ages ranging from 18 to 22 at Arizona State University were administered a survey asking questions about their sexist beliefs and their personal gender values. Results show a significant relationship between predictor variables to hostile sexist beliefs, but not benevolent sexist beliefs. These findings suggest that women's association with their gender-derived identity may parallel with endorsement of sexist beliefs when conceptions of the traditional woman is more salient.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Age of Social Transition, Parental Acceptance, and Mental Health of Transgender Adults

Description

The rates of anxiety, depression, and attempted suicide for transgender individuals are extremely elevated relative to the general population. Yet, little research has been conducted about the transgender population regarding

The rates of anxiety, depression, and attempted suicide for transgender individuals are extremely elevated relative to the general population. Yet, little research has been conducted about the transgender population regarding social transition (an individual presenting as their authentic/true gender, one different than the gender they were assigned at birth, in the context of everyday life) and parental acceptance. Both of which have been shown to impact the mental health of transgender individuals. The purposes of this study were: (1) To characterize a sample of transgender adults on their age of awareness of their authentic gender identity and their age of social transition. (2) Examine whether age of social transition, (3) parental acceptance, and (4) the gap in time between age of awareness and age of social transition (awareness-transition gap) were related to mental health. (5) Examine whether parental acceptance was related to age of social transition or to awareness-transition gap. (6) Examine whether age of social transition or awareness-transition gap interact with parental acceptance as correlates of mental health. The sample consisted of 115 transgender adults, ages 18 to 64. Measures were separated into 7 subheadings: demographics, transgender
on-cisgender identity, age of awareness, age of social transition, primary caregiver acceptance, secondary caregiver acceptance, and mental health. Hypotheses were partially supported for age of social transition with mental health, parental acceptance with mental health, and awareness-transition gap with parental acceptance. This study investigated under studied concepts of social transition and parental acceptance that appear to have an effect on the mental health of transgender adults.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

Sammie's Self: A Response to Transgender Issues in Contemporary Society

Description

This honors thesis is a combination of analytical and creative endeavors. The research portion of the project examines contemporary transgender issues, including social, emotional, and cultural concerns. Most notably, the

This honors thesis is a combination of analytical and creative endeavors. The research portion of the project examines contemporary transgender issues, including social, emotional, and cultural concerns. Most notably, the research focuses on the relationship between social support and mental health. These findings suggest that children who fail to receive adequate support are liable to face severe developmental and emotional consequences. The accumulation of this research ultimately serves as the foundation and justification for the creative work, which is presented as a children's book directed at transgender and gender non-confirming youths.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Schooling gender: identity construction in high school

Description

For many adolescents, high school is a critical period of self-awareness, peer-influence, and identity construction. During this volatile period, young people explore how to express themselves in ways that range

For many adolescents, high school is a critical period of self-awareness, peer-influence, and identity construction. During this volatile period, young people explore how to express themselves in ways that range from conformity to non-conformity and transgression. This is particularly true when it comes to young people's understanding and expression of gender identity. For some youth, their personal form(s) of gender expression align neatly with social expectations; for others, it does not. When gender expression does not align with social expectations, students may be vulnerable to bullying or harassment by peers or adults. Often, youth who are policed and regulated by their classmates through bullying (or harassment, depending upon the relevant or implemented policy) are targeted based on their perceived identity, be that racial, ethnic, citizenship, or, most frequently, gender and sexuality. This project advances the need for research done from a critical youth studies perspective (both methodologically and ethically) and provides new insight into the types of language and practices used by youth to express, perform and "do" gender. Utilizing qualitative methodology, including participant observation, focus group and individual interviews, surveys, and the collection and content analysis of school ephemera, this research investigated how high school students navigate gender identity amidst other intersecting identities. This project examined how youth both "do" and "perform" gender in their everyday lives as high school students. Their gender identity is frequently understood amidst other intersecting identities, particularly sexual orientation, religion and race. These youth also pointed to several important influences in how they understand their own gender, and the gender identity of those around them, including media and peer groups. Because this research took place at two charter art schools, the findings also provided a framework for understanding how these two schools, and charter art schools more generally, provide alternative spaces for young people to experiment and play with their identity construction. Findings indicate that youth are forced to navigate and construct their gender identity amidst many conflicting and contradictory ideologies. Schools, media, and peer groups all heavily influence the way young people understand themselves.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Constructing masculinities and the role of stay-at-home fathers: discussions of isolation, resistance and the division of household labor

Description

This qualitative study examines how fathers, who stay home with their children and identify as the main care-giver within their family, construct their role as the primary caregiver. I

This qualitative study examines how fathers, who stay home with their children and identify as the main care-giver within their family, construct their role as the primary caregiver. I analyze the narratives of stay-at-home fathers focusing on the thematic areas of isolation, resistance and the division of household labor. Unlike previous research, I examine the ways in which fathers construct their position as a stay-at-home father separate from the traditional stay-at-home mother role. Consequently, I focus on the constructions of masculinities by stay-at-home fathers that allows for the construction of the stay-at-home role to be uniquely tied to fatherhood rather than motherhood.

In this research, I explore three questions: 1) how do stay-at-home fathers construct their masculinity, specifically in relation to their social roles as fathers, partners, peers, etc.? 2) Is the negotiation of household labor, including care work and household tasks, in these families a reflection of shifting gender roles in the home where the primary caregiver is the father? 3) In what ways does social location and intersecting identities influence the ways in which fathers construct this stay-at-home identity?

My research emphasizes how these fathers understand their role as a stay-at-home father while challenging some traditionally dominant expectations of fatherhood. Specifically, I use themes of isolation, resistance, and the division of household labor in order to understand the multiple ways fathers experience their roles as stay-at-home parents.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Differential perceptions of LGBT individuals: the intersectionality of sexual orientation and gender

Description

Current research on anti-gay attitudes has focused heavily on heterosexuals versus

non-heterosexuals, with very little research delving into the differences within these “non-heterosexual” groups. The author conducted an exploratory analysis of

Current research on anti-gay attitudes has focused heavily on heterosexuals versus

non-heterosexuals, with very little research delving into the differences within these “non-heterosexual” groups. The author conducted an exploratory analysis of how the intersectional effect of gender and sexual orientation affect perceptions of target groups’ gender and sexuality, which in turn might explain different levels of prejudice toward LGBT subgroups. Based on previous studies, the author hypothesized that participants would believe that a gay male has a more fixed sexuality than a lesbian, leading in turn to higher levels of moral outrage. This study further aims to extend the literature to perceptions of bisexual and transgender individuals by testing competing hypotheses. Participants might feel less moral outrage toward these groups than other LGBT subgroups because they believe their sexuality is even less fixed than lesbians’. Alternatively, participants might feel more moral outrage toward bisexual and transgender targets (versus other LGBT groups) because of the uncomfortable feeling of uncertainty about these groups’ sexuality and/or gender. Overall, participants demonstrated an interactive effect of gender and sexuality on factors including perceived sexual orientation, perceived biological sex, perceived gender identity, perceived sexual fixedness, and moral outrage rather than gender having a main effect on perceptions of gender and sexual orientation having a main effect on perceptions of sexuality. Furthermore, perceptions of sexual fixedness mediated the effect of gender on moral outrage for heterosexual target groups, but not gay targets. Gender certainty mediated the effect of gender on moral outrage for pre-op transgender target groups, but not heterosexuals. This work is important to inform future research on the topics of the intersection of sexuality and gender, especially to extend the limited literature on perceptions of bisexual and transgender individuals.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The correlates and consequences of tomboyism: an exploration of gender-related characteristics, peer interactions, and psychosocial adjustment

Description

The study of tomboys offers useful insights for the field of gender development. Tomboys have been the focus of several studies aimed at defining what a tomboy is (Bailey, Bechtold,

The study of tomboys offers useful insights for the field of gender development. Tomboys have been the focus of several studies aimed at defining what a tomboy is (Bailey, Bechtold, & Berenbaum, 2002; Plumb & Cowan, 1984; Williams, Goodman, & Green, 1985) and what it means for children and adults who are tomboys (Morgan, 1998; Williams et al., 1985). These and further questions necessitate understanding the correlates and consequences for children exhibiting tomboy behaviors. This study aims to address these gaps in the literature as part of a longitudinal study assessing children's gendered attitudes, relationships, and beliefs. A group of 4th grade girls (N=98), were administered questionnaires asking them about their tomboy gender identity and related behaviors and beliefs. The first research question concerns how we identify tomboys through parent, teacher, and child self-report, and the application of groupings of tomboys as never, sometimes, and always tomboys. It was found that children who fall into different classifications of tomboyism differ on their similarity to own- and other-sex peers on a number of dimensions (e.g. similarity, peer preference, activity preference). Never tomboys had the most similarity and interest to own-sex peers, always tomboys, to other-sex peers, and sometimes tomboys exhibited the most flexibility with interest similar to both own- and other-sex peers. Peer-related adjustment consequences and experiences were considered for the different groups of tomboys, with always tomboys being the most efficacious with other-sex peers, never tomboys being the most efficacious with own-sex peers, and sometimes tomboys showing both own- and other-sex peer interactions and the least exclusion of any group.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Heterosexist Discrimination, Sexual Identity, and Conflicts in Allegiances among Latinx Sexual Minority Adults

Description

Empirical research has supported that higher behavioral engagement with and higher affective pride toward the LGBTQ+ community are associated with greater psychological well-being among Latinx sexual minorities (e.g., lesbian, gay,

Empirical research has supported that higher behavioral engagement with and higher affective pride toward the LGBTQ+ community are associated with greater psychological well-being among Latinx sexual minorities (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, etc.). Less is known, however, about predictors of sexual identity development among Latinx sexual minorities. This study explores how heterosexist discrimination may be related to the exploration and affirmation of one’s sexual minority identity. Conversely, conflicts in allegiance (CIA), that is, the experience of perceived incompatibility Latinx sexual minorities may experience between their racial-ethnic and sexual minority identities, was examined as a potential negative correlate. This study applies a rejection-identification model and identity development theories to test the associations between heterosexist discrimination, conflicts in allegiances and sexual identity constructs (LGBTQ+ behavioral engagement and affective pride). Among a sample of 366 Latinx sexual minorities, this study found both heterosexist discrimination and conflicts in allegiances were significant predictors of LGBTQ+ behavioral engagement and affective pride. Additionally, data supported two mediational models that tested relations between heterosexist discrimination, LGBTQ+ behavioral engagement, and affective pride. This study contributes to our understanding of sexual minority identity among Latinx individuals. These findings can assist helping professionals and community centers in promoting psychological well-being among Latinx sexual minority individuals by informing identity-affirming practices and interventions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Longitudinal associations between felt pressure from family and peers and self-esteem among African American and Latino/a Youth

Description

The present study explored longitudinal associations between self-esteem and a specific dimension of gender identity (GI) and ethnic-racial identity (ERI), namely felt pressure from family and peers to act or

The present study explored longitudinal associations between self-esteem and a specific dimension of gender identity (GI) and ethnic-racial identity (ERI), namely felt pressure from family and peers to act or behave in either gender or race/ethnic-accordant ways, among a sample of 750 African American and Latino/a middle school students (M = 12.10 years, SD = .97 years) in a southwestern U.S. city. Participants completed measures of self-esteem and GI and ERI felt pressure from family and from peers at two time points. Data were analyzed through bivariate correlation and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. Hierarchical multiple linear regression results revealed that among African American students, there was a significant negative longitudinal association between ERI felt pressure from family at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2 after controlling for self-esteem at Time 1. There was also a significant negative longitudinal association between ERI felt pressure from peers at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2 among African American participants. However, these associations were not found among Latino/a participants. Implications of findings with regards to GI and ERI development during early adolescence, socialization, and school context are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017