Matching Items (4)

Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Catalysts with Applications in Solar Fuels

Description

Metalloporphyrins serve important roles in biological processes and in emerging technologies with applications to energy conversion. When electrochemically activated in solution, metalloporphyrins have the ability to catalyze the conversion of

Metalloporphyrins serve important roles in biological processes and in emerging technologies with applications to energy conversion. When electrochemically activated in solution, metalloporphyrins have the ability to catalyze the conversion of protons into hydrogen fuels. In this report, the synthesis and characterization of zinc, nickel, cobalt and copper analogs of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin (PF20) and 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-tolyporphyrin (TTP) are described. All target compounds are characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The freebase porphyrins and non-paramagnetic metalloporphyrins are further characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and all proton resonances are assigned. Electrochemical measurements show the reduction potential of the fluorinated phenyl substituted porphyrins is shifted to less negative values as compared to the reduction potential measured using non-fluorinated analogs. These results illustrate the ability to use fluorine as a synthetic tool for altering the electronic properties of metalloporphyrins. Further, these findings serve a critical role in choosing metalloporphyrin electrocatalysts with the appropriate energetic and optical properties for integration to semiconductors with applications to solar-to- fuels technologies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Hybrid Materials and Interfaces for Artificial Photosynthetic Assemblies

Description

Chemical modification of (semi)conducting surfaces with soft-material coatings containing electrocatalysts provides a strategy for developing integrated constructs that capture, convert, and store solar energy as fuels. However, a lack of

Chemical modification of (semi)conducting surfaces with soft-material coatings containing electrocatalysts provides a strategy for developing integrated constructs that capture, convert, and store solar energy as fuels. However, a lack of effective strategies for interfacing electrocatalysts with solid-state materials, and an incomplete understanding of performance limiting factors, inhibit further development. In this work, chemical modification of a nanostructured transparent conductive oxide, and the III-V semiconductor, gallium phosphide, is achieved by applying a thin-film polymer coating containing appropriate functional groups to direct, template, and assemble molecular cobalt catalysts for activating fuel-forming reactions. The heterogeneous-homogeneous conducting assemblies enable comparisons of the structural and electrochemical properties of these materials with their homogeneous electrocatalytic counterparts. For these hybrid constructs, rational design of the local soft-material environment yields a nearly one-volt span in the redox chemistry of the cobalt metal centers. Further, assessment of the interplay between light absorption, charge transfer, and catalytic activity in studies involving molecular-catalyst-modified semiconductors affords models to describe the rates of photoelectrosynthetic fuel production as a function of the steady-state concentration of catalysts present in their activated form. These models provide a conceptual framework for extracting kinetic and thermodynamic benchmarking parameters. Finally, investigation of molecular ‘proton wires’ inspired by the Tyrosine Z-Histidine 190 redox pair in Photosystem II, provides insight into fundamental principles governing proton-coupled electron transfer, a process essential to all fuel-forming reactions relevant to solar fuel generation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Design and Evaluation of a Concentrating Solar Power System with Thermochemical Water Splitting Process for the Co-production of Hydrogen and Electricity

Description

Thermodynamic development and balance of plant study is completed for a 30 MW solar thermochemical water splitting process that generates hydrogen gas and electric power. The generalized thermodynamic model includes

Thermodynamic development and balance of plant study is completed for a 30 MW solar thermochemical water splitting process that generates hydrogen gas and electric power. The generalized thermodynamic model includes 23 components and 45 states. Quasi-steady state simulations are completed for design point system sizing, annual performance analysis and sensitivity analysis. Detailed consideration is given to water splitting reaction kinetics with governing equations generalized for use with any redox-active metal oxide material. Specific results for Ceria illustrate particle reduction in two solar receivers for target oxygen partial pressure of 10 Pa and particle temperature of 1773 K at a design point DNI of 900 W/m2. Sizes of the recuperator, steam generator and hydrogen separator are calculated at the design point DNI to achieve 100,000 kg of hydrogen production per day from the plant. The total system efficiency of 39.52% is comprised of 50.7% hydrogen fraction and 19.62% electrical fraction. Total plant capital costs and operating costs are estimated to equate a hydrogen production cost of $4.40 per kg for a 25-year plant life. Sensitivity analysis explores the effect of environmental parameters and design parameters on system performance and cost. Improving recuperator effectiveness from 0.7 to 0.8 is a high-value design modification resulting in a 12.1% decrease in hydrogen cost for a modest 2.0% increase in plant $2.85M. At the same time, system efficiency is relatively inelastic to recuperator effectiveness because 81% of excess heat is recovered from the system for electricity production 39 MWh/day and revenue is $0.04 per kWh. Increasing water inlet pressure up to 20 bar reduces the size and cost of super heaters but further pressure rises increasing pump at a rate that outweighs super heater cost savings.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Structural and photoelectrochemical characterization of gallium phosphide semiconductors modified with molecular cobalt catalysts

Description

The molecular modification of semiconductors has applications in energy

conversion and storage, including artificial photosynthesis. In nature, the active sites of

enzymes are typically earth-abundant metal centers and the protein provides a

The molecular modification of semiconductors has applications in energy

conversion and storage, including artificial photosynthesis. In nature, the active sites of

enzymes are typically earth-abundant metal centers and the protein provides a unique

three-dimensional environment for effecting catalytic transformations. Inspired by this

biological architecture, a synthetic methodology using surface-grafted polymers with

discrete chemical recognition sites for assembling human-engineered catalysts in three-dimensional

environments is presented. The use of polymeric coatings to interface cobalt-containing

catalysts with semiconductors for solar fuel production is introduced in

Chapter 1. The following three chapters demonstrate the versatility of this modular

approach to interface cobalt-containing catalysts with semiconductors for solar fuel

production. The catalyst-containing coatings are characterized through a suite of

spectroscopic techniques, including ellipsometry, grazing angle attenuated total reflection

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (GATR-FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron (XP)

spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the polymeric interface can be varied to control the

surface chemistry and photoelectrochemical response of gallium phosphide (GaP) (100)

electrodes by using thin-film coatings comprising surface-immobilized pyridyl or

imidazole ligands to coordinate cobaloximes, known catalysts for hydrogen evolution.

The polymer grafting chemistry and subsequent cobaloxime attachment is applicable to

both the (111)A and (111)B crystal face of the gallium phosphide (GaP) semiconductor,

providing insights into the surface connectivity of the hard/soft matter interface and

demonstrating the applicability of the UV-induced immobilization of vinyl monomers to

a range of GaP crystal indices. Finally, thin-film polypyridine surface coatings provide a

molecular interface to assemble cobalt porphyrin catalysts for hydrogen evolution onto

GaP. In all constructs, photoelectrochemical measurements confirm the hybrid

photocathode uses solar energy to power reductive fuel-forming transformations in

aqueous solutions without the use of organic acids, sacrificial chemical reductants, or

electrochemical forward biasing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018