Matching Items (6)

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Effect of Winglet Morphology on Variable Range Commercial Aircraft

Description

Winglets and wingtip structures have been prominent in commercial aircraft design in the past few decades. These designs are known to reduce the induced drag on an aircraft wing, thus

Winglets and wingtip structures have been prominent in commercial aircraft design in the past few decades. These designs are known to reduce the induced drag on an aircraft wing, thus increasing its overall fuel efficiency. Several different winglet designs exist, and little reason is offered as to why different winglet designs are used in practice on different aircraft, especially those of variable range. This research tests existing winglets (no winglet, raked winglet, flat plate winglet, blended winglet, and wingtip fence) on a span-constrained wing planform design both computationally and in the wind tunnel. While computational tests using a vortex lattice code indicate that the wingtip fence minimizes induced drag and maximizes lift to drag ratio in most cases, wind tunnel tests show that at different lift coefficients and angles of attack, the raked winglet and blended winglet optimize the aerodynamic efficiency at incompressible flow velocities. Applying the wing aerodynamic data to existing variable range commercial aircraft, mission performance analysis is run on a Bombardier CRJ200, Airbus A320, and Airbus A340-300. By comparing flight lift coefficients in cruise for these aircraft to the lift coefficients at which winglets minimize drag in compressible flows, optimal winglet designs are chosen. It is found that the short range CRJ200 is best equipped with a flat plate or blended winglet, the medium range A320 can reduce drag with either a wingtip fence, raked winglet, or blended winglet, and the long range A340 performs best with a flat plate, blended, or raked winglet. Overall, despite the discrepancy in winglet selection depending on which experimental results are used, it is clear that addition of a winglet to a span-constrained wing is beneficial in that it reduces induced drag and therefore increases overall fuel efficiency.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Automatic Area Ruling of Aircraft Geometries

Description

This paper describes an aircraft design optimization tool for wave drag reduction. The tool synthesizes an aircraft wing and fuselage geometry using the Rhinoceros CAD program. It then implements an

This paper describes an aircraft design optimization tool for wave drag reduction. The tool synthesizes an aircraft wing and fuselage geometry using the Rhinoceros CAD program. It then implements an algorithm to perform area-ruling on the fuselage. The algorithm adjusts the cross-sectional area along the length of the fuselage, with the wing geometry fixed, to match a Sears-Haack distribution. Following the optimization of the area, the tool collects geometric data for analysis using legacy performance tools. This analysis revealed that performing the optimization yielded an average reduction in wave drag of 25% across a variety of Mach numbers on two different starting geometries. The goal of this project is to integrate this optimization tool into a larger trade study tool as it will allow for higher fidelity modeling as well as large improvements in transonic and supersonic drag performance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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A Tool for the Parametric Modelling of Aircraft Landing Gear

Description

This paper outlines the development of a script which utilizes a series of user-defined input parameters to construct base-level CAD models of aircraft landing gear. With an increased focus on

This paper outlines the development of a script which utilizes a series of user-defined input parameters to construct base-level CAD models of aircraft landing gear. With an increased focus on computation development of aircraft models to allow for a rapidprototyping design process, this program seeks to allow designers to check for the validity of design integration before moving forward on systems testing. With this script, users are able to visually analyze the landing gear configurations on an aircraft in both the gear up and gear down configuration. The primary purpose this serves is to determine the validity of the gear's potential to fit within the limited real estate on an aircraft body. This, theoretically, can save time by weeding out infeasible designs before moving forward with subsystem performance testing. The script, developed in Python, constructs CAD models of dual and dual-tandem main landing gear configurations in the CAD program Rhino5. With an included design template consisting of 33 parameters, the script allows for a reasonable trade off between conciseness and flexibility of design.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A Tool for the Parametric Modeling of Aircraft Bodies

Description

The traditional early design phase of an aircraft involves a design approach in which the model's characteristics are defined before the CAD model is built. This thesis discusses an alternative

The traditional early design phase of an aircraft involves a design approach in which the model's characteristics are defined before the CAD model is built. This thesis discusses an alternative to the early design process employing the use of a parametric model. A parametric model is one in which its characteristics are defined as functions of input parameters that a user will choose, as opposed to being pre-defined. This allows for faster iterations of the CAD design of an aircraft going through its first design phases. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency, a tool was developed in the form of a script written in Python that compiles into a plugin that a user can install into Rhino. With a full template of about 70 parameters that have significant effects on the performance characteristics of an aircraft, a user with the plugin can generate a full model. The overall design phase and development of the script into a publicly available installation file is discussed below. Results for the thesis took the form of insight gained into the field of parametric modeling. After development and implementation, emphasis points such as generation time, focus on parameters with large effect on aircraft performance, and interpolation of parameters dependent upon others were concluded.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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A Modeling System to Understand the Design and Performance of a Two Spool Gas Turbine Engine

Description

The purpose of my Honors Thesis was to generate a tool that could be implemented by Aerospace students at Arizona State University. This tool was created using MatLab which is

The purpose of my Honors Thesis was to generate a tool that could be implemented by Aerospace students at Arizona State University. This tool was created using MatLab which is the current program students are using. The modeling system that was generated goes step-by-step through the flow of a two spool gas turbine engine. The code was then compared to an ideal case engine with predictable values. It was found to have less than a 3 percent error for these parameters, which included optimal net work produced, optimal overall pressure ratio, and maximum pressure ratio. The modeling system was then run through a parametric analysis. In the first case, the bypass ratio was set to 0 and the freestream Mach number was set to 0. The second case was with a bypass ratio of 0 and fresstream Mach number of 0.85. The third case was with a bypass ratio of 5 and freestream Mach number of 0. The fourth case was with a bypass ratio of 5 and fresstream Mach number of 0.85. Each of these cases was run at various overall pressure ratios and maximum Temperatures of 1500 K, 1600 K and 1700 K. The results modeled the behavior that was expected. As the freestream Mach number was increased, the thrust decreased and the thrust specific fuel consumption increased, corresponding to an increase in total pressure at the combustor inlet. It was also found that the thrust was increased and the thrust specific fuel consumption decreased as the bypass ratio was increased. These results also make sense as there is less airflow passing through the engine core. Finally the engine was compared to two real engines. Both of which are General Electric G6 series engines. For the 80C2A3 engine, the percent difference between thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption was less than five percent. For the 50B, the thrust was below a two percent difference, but the thrust specific fuel consumption clearly provided inaccurate results. This could be caused by the lack of inputs provided by General Electric. The amount of fuel injected is largely dependent on the maximum temperature which is not available to the public. Overall, the code produces comparable results to real engines and can display how isolating and modifying a certain parameter effects engine performance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Analysis of Regulations on the Landing and Take-off of Commercial Aircraft

Description

The thesis is an investigation on current regulations of commercial aircraft landing and take-off procedures and an analysis of potential weaknesses within the regulatory system for commercial aerospace. To determine

The thesis is an investigation on current regulations of commercial aircraft landing and take-off procedures and an analysis of potential weaknesses within the regulatory system for commercial aerospace. To determine such flaws, an area of worse-case scenarios with regard to the aforementioned flight operations was researched. The events selected to best-depict these scenarios where incidents of aircraft overrunning the runway, referred to as runway excursions. A case-study conducted of 44 federal investigations of runway excursions produced data indicating four influential factors within these incidents: weather, pilot error, instrument malfunction, and runway condition. Upon examination, all but pilot error appeared to have federal enforcement to diminish the occurrence of future incidents. This is a direct result of the broad possibilities that make up this factor. The study then searched for a consistent fault within the incidents with the results indicating an indirect relationship of thrust reversers, a technique utilized by pilots to provide additional braking, to these excursions. In cases of thrust reverser failure, pilots' over-reliance on the system lead to time being lost from the confusion produced by the malfunction, ultimately resulting in several different runway excursions. The legal implication with the situation is that current regulations are ambiguous on the subject of thrust reversers and thus do not properly model the usage of the technique. Thus, to observe the scope of danger this ambiguity presents to the industry, the relationship of the technique to commercial aerospace needed to be determined. Interviews were set-up with former commercial pilots to gather data related to the flight crew perspective. This data indicated that thrust reversers were actively utilized by pilots within the industry for landing operations. The problem with the current regulations was revealed that the lack of details on thrust reverser reflected a failure of regulations to model current industry flight operations. To improve safety within the industry, new data related to thrust reverser deployment must be developed and enforced to determine appropriate windows to utilize the technique, thus decreasing time lost in confusion that results from thrust reversers malfunction. Future work would be based on producing simulations to determine said data as well as proposing the policy suggestions produced by this thesis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05