Matching Items (13)

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Learning to Listen: Changes in Brain Activity following a Listening Comprehension Intervention

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Language comprehension is an essential skill in many aspects of life, yet some children still struggle with oral comprehension. This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention to improve the

Language comprehension is an essential skill in many aspects of life, yet some children still struggle with oral comprehension. This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention to improve the listening skills and comprehension of 4 and 5-year olds. This intervention is based on principles of embodied cognition, namely that language comprehension requires a simulation (or imagination) of what the language is about. Thus, children in the intervention condition moved pictures on an iPad to simulate the stories they were hearing. Children in the control condition saw the pictures, but did not move them. To identify the effectiveness of this simulation training, we analyzed scores on a comprehension test, and changes in motor cortex activity while listening. If the intervention increases simulation, then compared to the control, a) children given the intervention should perform better on the comprehension test, and b) those children should show greater activity in their motor cortices while listening. Furthermore, the change in motor cortex activity should statistically mediate the change in comprehension. Our results showed a significant positive correlation (.79) in the EMBRACE group (but not in the control) between the change in mu suppression before and after the intervention and the change in comprehension questions before and after the intervention. This correlation suggests that children can be taught to use their motor cortices while listening, and supports our hypothesis that embodied language theories, such as simulation are useful for enhancing comprehension.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Manifesting Disability to Preserve the Sanctity of Human Life

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Abstract As humans, we can instill a different mindset when it comes to our bodies and suffering. Using Antonin Artuad's contributions to the theater in examining the role and consequences

Abstract As humans, we can instill a different mindset when it comes to our bodies and suffering. Using Antonin Artuad's contributions to the theater in examining the role and consequences of dehumanization, disability can be reimagined. There is a need for a "true theater" of "cruelty," not in the literal sense, but in a metaphorical sense whereby the essence of being alive is revealed through the exaggerated gestures of the true theater, or "poetry in space." Disability is the embodiment of chaos, in the way it manifests the human condition through the reality of having a body, and as the embodiment of conflict between ostensible symbols of socio-cultural "order," and the sanctity of human life. If this chaos is destructive to the socio-cultural, symbolic order but poetic in space, then reimagining disability in order to understand it can serve to create true compassion in the human experience. While "order" in the socio-cultural sense produces hegemony via a hierarchy of symbols and consequences, chaos serves as the innate poetry of the body: inspirational, pure and valuable. It is oriented towards that essence most urgent to humankind: the raw experience of the physical body, despite its continued existence in a confining, conflicting world. Hegemony, generated by the social symbolic order (SSO) attempts to create order out of perceived chaos and claims that suffering in the body is detrimental to life, manifesting violence towards disabled people because they are viewed as suffering and limited. Hegemony creates the conditions whereby the disabled are susceptible into thinking their own lives lack value.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Individual Differences in Simulating Language: Do Good Readers Embody More or Less?

Description

Do good readers embody more or less? The current investigation examined embodiment effects as a function of individual reading skill in the context of two cognitive theories of reading comprehension.

Do good readers embody more or less? The current investigation examined embodiment effects as a function of individual reading skill in the context of two cognitive theories of reading comprehension. The Construction-Integration model predicts that sensorimotor activity during reading will correlate negatively with reading skill, because good readers focus on relations among abstract ideas derived from the text. Supposedly those abstract ideas have little or no sensorimotor content, hence any sensorimotor activity while reading is wasted effort. In contrast, the simulation theory predicts that sensorimotor activity will correlate positively with reading skill, because good readers create a simulation of what is happening within the text to comprehend it. The simulation is based in neural and bodily systems of action, perception, and emotion. These opposing predictions were tested using the reading-by-rotation paradigm to measure embodiment effects. Those effects were then correlated with reading skill measured using the Gates-McGinite standardized reading test. Analyses revealed an unexpected interaction between condition and congruency, and a negative relationship between embodiment and reading skill. Several caveats to the results are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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No doors: a personal exploration of movement and technology

Description

No Doors: A Personal Exploration of Movement and Technology, details the interdisciplinary strategies that were used in the making of a series of interactive/reactive/immersive (IRI) installations that drew audiences into

No Doors: A Personal Exploration of Movement and Technology, details the interdisciplinary strategies that were used in the making of a series of interactive/reactive/immersive (IRI) installations that drew audiences into an experience and encouraged active observation and/or participation. The interdisciplinary IRI installations described in this document combined movement, sculpture, production design, and various forms of media and technology with environments in which participants had agency. In the process of developing this work, the artist considered several concepts and practices: site-specific, various technologies, real-time processing, participant experience, embodied exploration, and hidden activity. Throughout the creative process, the researcher conducted a series of four focus labs in which a small audience was invited to engage with the work as a way of gathering data about the effectiveness of the installations in facilitating active audience observation and/or participation. The data collected after each focus lab informed the revision of the work in preparation for the next focus lab, with the ultimate result being the production of a final exhibition of five interdisciplinary IRI installations. The installations detailed in this document were loosely based on five elements: water, fire, air, earth, and spirit.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Embodied continuity: weaving the body into a web of artistry and ethnography

Description

Embodied Continuity documents the methodology of Entangled/Embraced, a dance performance piece presented December, 2011 and created as an artistic translation of research conducted January-May, 2011 in the states of Karnataka

Embodied Continuity documents the methodology of Entangled/Embraced, a dance performance piece presented December, 2011 and created as an artistic translation of research conducted January-May, 2011 in the states of Karnataka and Kerala, South India. Focused on the sciences of Ayurveda, Kalaripayattu and yoga, this research stems from an interest in body-mind connectivity, body-mind-environment continuity, embodied epistemology and the implications of ethnography within artistic practice. The document begins with a theoretical grounding covering established research on theories of embodiment; ethnographic methodologies framing research conducted in South India including sensory ethnography, performance ethnography and autoethnography; and an explanation of the sciences of Ayurveda, Kalaripayattu and yoga with a descriptive slant that emphasizes concepts of embodiment and body-mind-environment continuity uniquely inherent to these sciences. Following the theoretical grounding, the document provides an account of methods used in translating theoretical concepts and experiences emerging from research in India into the creation of the Entangled/Embraced dance work. Using dancer and audience member participation to inspire emergent meanings and maintain ethnographic consciousness, Embodied Continuity demonstrates how concepts inspiring research interests, along with ideas emerging from within research experiences, in addition to philosophical standpoints embedded in the ethnographic methodologies chosen to conduct research, weave into the entire project of Entangled/Embraced to unite the phases of research and performance, ethnography and artistry.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Enhancing the affordances of a tangible learning environment through prompts delivered through a teachable robotic agent

Description

For this master's thesis, a unique set of cognitive prompts, designed to be delivered through a teachable robotic agent, were developed for students using Tangible Activities for Geometry (TAG), a

For this master's thesis, a unique set of cognitive prompts, designed to be delivered through a teachable robotic agent, were developed for students using Tangible Activities for Geometry (TAG), a tangible learning environment developed at Arizona State University. The purpose of these prompts is to enhance the affordances of the tangible learning environment and help researchers to better understand how we can design tangible learning environments to best support student learning. Specifically, the prompts explicitly encourage users to make use of their physical environment by asking students to perform a number of gestures and behaviors while prompting students about domain-specific knowledge. To test the effectiveness of these prompts that combine elements of cognition and physical movements, the performance and behavior of students who encounter these prompts while using TAG will be compared against the performance and behavior of students who encounter a more traditional set of cognitive prompts that would typically be used within a virtual learning environment. Following this study, data was analyzed using a novel modeling and analysis tool that combines enhanced log annotation using video and user model generation functionalities to highlight trends amongst students.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Investigating the Novelty Effect in Virtual Reality on STEM Learning

Description

The science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education community is interested in using virtual reality (VR) to help students learn STEM knowledge. Prior research also provided evidence that VR learning

The science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education community is interested in using virtual reality (VR) to help students learn STEM knowledge. Prior research also provided evidence that VR learning can increase students’ motivation and learning achievement. However, it was not clear whether the effect of VR on learning was partly from sensory novelty and whether the effectiveness was sustainable. This study was to satisfy the concern on the sustainability of VR STEM learning in instruction and address the research gaps in exploring the effect of VR on a STEM learning experience with a consideration of novelty.

The study used a mixed-methods experimental design and involved a three-session VR STEM learning intervention. The quantitative data was collected through the intervention by survey questionnaire, session quiz, and pre- and post-tests, while the interviews were taken after the intervention. The structural equation modeling method was used to explore the relationships among factors in the VR learning experience. Longitudinal quantitative comparisons were conducted with the multiple imputation method. Its purpose was to evaluate the changing magnitude of factors across sessions. After quantitative analysis, interview transcripts were analyzed. They were used to triangulate or provide context for understanding of quantitative results.

The results showed that motivation and engagement play a critical mediation role in an effective VR learning experience. While individuals’ psychological responses and motivation may significantly increase in a VR learning experience for novelty, the novelty effect may not steeply decrease when individuals are becoming familiar with the novelty. This phenomenon is more observable in a VR condition having a high degree of immersion and embodiment. In addition, novelty does not necessarily increase learning achievement. The increase of learning achievement is more dependent on a match between the learning content and the learning method. The embodied learning method is appropriate for instructing difficult knowledge and spatial knowledge. Reserving enough time for reflection is important to deep learning in a VR environment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Paseo: becoming self

Description

Paseo is a postmodern dance performance that reveals the migrational passage of bodies through space and time. Paseo included five dance participants, and the choreographer/pedagogue. Paseo members participated in rehearsal

Paseo is a postmodern dance performance that reveals the migrational passage of bodies through space and time. Paseo included five dance participants, and the choreographer/pedagogue. Paseo members participated in rehearsal and performance events that completed the investigational study. The creative process focused on integrating somatic and improvisational movement practices to design an environment where dancers could build body-mind awareness and sensitivity to their surroundings, participate democratically, and build agency in their performative decision-making. Paseo investigated the performance as an informal site for learning and understanding of migration, identity, and community. Another objective of Paseo was to explore the performance as an informal site of learning and its transformative effects on lived experiences that occur from the act of doing, the act of becoming, and experiential sensations.

Paseo was part of the Arizona State University’s (ASU) School of Film, Dance, and Theatre Emerging Artists I series, one of two performances that shared the stage with fellow graduate cohort member, Grace Gallagher. Paseo took place at ASU’s Margaret Gisolo Theatre, located at the Physical Education Building East. Performance dates were the following; fix punctuation Friday, November 6th, Saturday, November 7th, and Sunday, November 8th. Paseo had a fourth presentation on Saturday, December 5th, 2015, at Margaret Gisolo Theatre as part of the post-conference performance and dialogue event, “By The People.” The conference was hosted by the Participatory Government Initiative on the ASU Campus from December 3rd-5th, 2015.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Embattled identities: constructions of contemporary American masculinity amongst mixed martial arts cagefighters

Description

Masculinity has been increasingly recognized as a critical and relatively unexplored area of inquiry in anthropological gender studies. This project seeks to expand anthropological research on masculinity to contemporary American

Masculinity has been increasingly recognized as a critical and relatively unexplored area of inquiry in anthropological gender studies. This project seeks to expand anthropological research on masculinity to contemporary American society. Using the case study of a male-centered popular new sport, Mixed Martial Arts (also known as cagefighting) this project integrates theories of embodiment and feminist perspectives to explore how masculinity and masculine hegemony are shaped, contested, and perpetuated in the United States. Using a multi-level framework this project explores: 1) How is masculinity experienced and expressed by Mixed Martial Arts fighters as a form of self-identity? How do their bodies play a role in constructing masculinity? 2) What are the pervasive forms of masculinity associated with Mixed Martial Arts (MMA)? Are they truly representative of the sport? 3) Can these pervasive forms of masculinity be seen as hegemonic? How would hegemony operate in relation to individual experience? Using multiple methods to capture multiple points of view was critical to thoroughly examining the complex notion of masculinity. This study employed participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, surveys, photo elicitation, and media content analysis, as each presented particular benefits and allowed for the development a more well-rounded understanding of masculinity within the realm of MMA. This study also situates the rise of MMA and its representations of masculinity within the greater perspective of contemporary American society. By doing so reveals how ideologies of prescribed masculinity do not arise out of a vacuum but in relation to particular economic, social and political contexts. An emphasis of this study was to examine the daily lives of MMA fighters to understand how their participation in what may be regarded as a hypermasculine activity affects their own perceptions of masculinity. In looking at how masculinity is embodied, the gaps and often contradictions between representation and individual experiences are revealed. Ultimately, the goal of this research is to contribute to a better understanding of masculinity as both an embodied and relational construct.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Performing embodiment: negotiating the body in the electroencephalographic music of David Rosenboom

Description

Beneath the epidermis, the human body contains a vibrant and complex ecology of interwoven rhythms such the heartbeat, the breath, the division of cells, and complex brain activity. By repurposing

Beneath the epidermis, the human body contains a vibrant and complex ecology of interwoven rhythms such the heartbeat, the breath, the division of cells, and complex brain activity. By repurposing emergent medical technology into real-time gestural sound controllers of electronic musical instruments, experimental musicians in the 1960s and 1970s – including David Rosenboom – began to realize the expressive potential of these biological sounds. Composers experimented with breath and heartbeat. They also used electroencephalography (EEG) sensors, which register various types of brain waves. Instead of using the sound of brain waves in fixed-media pieces, many composers took diverse approaches to the challenge of presenting this in live performance. Their performance practices suggest different notions of embodiment, a relationship in this music which has not been discussed in detail.

Rosenboom reflects extensively on this performance practice. He supports his EEG research with theory about the practice of biofeedback. Rosenboom’s work with EEG sensors spans several decades and continue today, which has allowed him to make use of advancing sensing and computing technologies. For instance, in his 1976 On Being Invisible, the culmination of his work with EEG, he makes use of analyzed EEG data to drive a co-improvising musical system.

In this thesis, I parse different notions of embodiment in the performance of EEG music. Through a critical analysis of examples from the discourse surrounding EEG music in its early years, I show that cultural perception of EEG sonification points to imaginative speculations about the practice’s potentials; these fantasies have fascinating ramifications on the role of the body in this music’s performance. Juxtaposing these with Rosenboom, I contend that he cultivated an embodied performance practice of the EEG. To show how this might be manifest in performance, I consider two recordings of On Being Invisible.

As few musicologists have investigated this particular strain of musical experimentalism, I hope to contextualize biofeedback musicianship by offering an embodied reading of this milestone work for EEG.

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Date Created
  • 2015