Matching Items (7)

A Morning in Vietnam: The Lives of the Nurses Who Served

Description

The Vietnam War had a lasting effect on both the men and the women who served. While there appears to be plenty of research on how the war impacted the

The Vietnam War had a lasting effect on both the men and the women who served. While there appears to be plenty of research on how the war impacted the lives of the men, there is very little publicity given to how the war impacted the women, despite the extensive documentation in the forms of oral histories and studies. By looking at oral histories and various studies on different aspects of service, such as PTSD, experience, combat exposure, and gender in the conflict, this study recognizes the gaps in the examination of the nurse's experiences in Vietnam. It strives to contribute to the process of forming a more comprehensive study of how the war impacted the women who served. This study will answer the following questions: How did the experiences of the Vietnam War change the lives of the women who served as nurses? What struggles did they face while in service and when they returned home? How did the war impact them psychologically and, thus, change their behavior? Since the majority of the women who served were Army medical personnel, this study will focus on that population. This study begins with an investigation of their prewar lives, their reasons for joining the Army Nurse Corps, and their experiences in basic training. It analyzes their services in Vietnam by examining their experiences, gender roles, and working conditions. Finally, it explores the impact of the war on their lives, through an analysis of their homecoming, the controversy of Agent Orange, and PTSD. It shows how many of these factors would overlap with their experiences, causing trauma and a change in the behavior of these women. In many cases, the nurses changed from innocent and sheltered to depressed, angry, and struggling with their memories. Their experiences before, during, and after the war changed their perceptions of the world and themselves, resulting in increased anxiety, the need for adrenaline, and isolationist behaviors. The war was indiscriminate, and therefore, had a similar impact on both the men and women involved.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Scents of efficiency: discovering how olfactory stimuli affect caregiver performance in a simulated emergency department

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Research has shown that the ability to smell is the most direct sense an individual can experience. With every breath a person takes, the brain recognizes thousands of molecules and

Research has shown that the ability to smell is the most direct sense an individual can experience. With every breath a person takes, the brain recognizes thousands of molecules and makes connections with our memories to determine their composition. With the amount of research looking into how and why we smell, researchers still have little understanding of how the nose and brain process an aroma, and how emotional and physical behavior is impacted. This research focused on the affects smell has on a caregiver in a simulated Emergency Department setting located in the SimET of Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center in Phoenix, Arizona. The study asked each participant to care for a programmed mannequin, or "patient", while performing simple computer-based tasks, including memory and recall, multi-tasking, and mood-mapping to gauge physical and mental performance. Three different aromatic environments were then introduced through diffusion and indirect inhalation near the participants' task space: 1) a control (no smell), 2) an odor (simulated dirty feet), and 3) an aroma (one of four true essential oils plus a current odor-eliminating compound used in many U.S. Emergency Departments). This study was meant to produce a stressful environment by leading the caregiver to stay in constant movement throughout the study through timed tasks, uncooperative equipment, and a needy "patient". The goal of this research was to determine if smells, and of what form of pleasantness and repulsiveness, can have an effect on the physical and mental performance of emergency caregivers. Findings from this study indicated that the "odor eliminating" method currently used in typical Emergency Departments, coffee grounds, is more problematic than helpful, and the introduction of true essential oils may not only reduce stress, but increase efficiency and, in turn, job satisfaction.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Between persuasion and coercion: situating mandatory influenza vaccination policy of healthcare personnel (HCP)

Description

Vaccinations are important for preventing influenza infection. Maximizing vaccination uptake rates (80-90%) is crucial in generating herd immunity and preventing infection incidence. Vaccination of healthcare professionals (HCP) against influenza is

Vaccinations are important for preventing influenza infection. Maximizing vaccination uptake rates (80-90%) is crucial in generating herd immunity and preventing infection incidence. Vaccination of healthcare professionals (HCP) against influenza is vital to infection control in healthcare settings, given their consistent exposure to high-risk patients like: those with compromised immune systems, children, and the elderly (Johnson & Talbot, 2011). Though vaccination is vital in disease prevention, influenza vaccination uptake among HCP is low overall (50% on average) (Pearson et al., 2006). Mandatory vaccination policies result in HCP influenza vaccination uptake rates substantially higher than opt-in influenza vaccination campaigns (90% vs. 60%). Therefore, influenza vaccination should be mandatory for HCP in order to best prevent influenza infection in healthcare settings. Many HCP cite individual objections to influenza vaccination rooted in personal doubts and ethical concerns, not best available scientific evidence. Nevertheless, HCP ethical responsibility to their patients and work environments to prevent and lower influenza infection incidence overrules such individual objections. Additionally, mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies respect HCP autonomy via including medical and religious exemption clauses. While vaccination as a prevention method for influenza is logically sound, individuals’ actions are not always rooted in logic. Therefore, I analyze HCP perceptions and actions toward influenza vaccination in an effort to better explain low HCP uptake rates of the influenza vaccine and individual objections to influenza vaccination. Such analysis can aid in gaining HCP trust when implementing mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies. In summary, mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies are ethically justified, effective, scientifically-supported method of maximizing HCP influenza vaccine uptake and minimizing the spread of the influenza virus within healthcare settlings.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Nutrition Course and Culinary Demonstrations To Increase Perceived Importance of Nutrition in Medical Students

Description

Healthy lifestyle behaviors including quality nutrition have been shown to successfully prevent chronic disease or minimize symptoms. However, many physicians lack the knowledge and skills to provide adequate nutrition counseling

Healthy lifestyle behaviors including quality nutrition have been shown to successfully prevent chronic disease or minimize symptoms. However, many physicians lack the knowledge and skills to provide adequate nutrition counseling and education for their patients. A major component of this problem is that medical schools are not required to teach nutrition education. The purpose of this feasibility study was to compare the changes in the perceived importance of nutrition in the medical field in medical students before and after participating in a week-long interactive nutrition course in order to determine if a week-long course can positively influence students’ perceptions of nutrition. Ultimately by changing these perceptions, medical students may be able to better help patients prevent chronic disease. The participants were first year medical students at the Mayo Clinic School of Medicine (Scottsdale, AZ) who chose to participate in this medical school “Selective”. The study included a five-day curriculum of case-studies, lectures from specialized health professionals, and a cooking class led by a chef who trained in France. An anonymous pre- and post-study questionnaire with five-point Likert scale questions was used to measure changes in attitudes. The data suggest that students’ perceptions regarding the importance and relevance of nutrition in the medical shifted slightly more positive after attending this Selective, although these shifts in attitude were not statistically significant. Limitations of this study include a small sample size and selection bias, which may have decreased the potential of having significant results. Both of these factors also make the results of this study less generalizable to all medical students. This study supports the need for a larger experimental study of a similar design to verify that an interactive, evidence-based nutrition class and culinary experience increases medical students’ positive perceptions of nutrition in the medical field.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Understanding adaptive behaviors in complex clinical environments

Description

Critical care environments are complex in nature. Fluctuating team dynamics and the plethora of technology and equipment create unforeseen demands on clinicians. Such environments become chaotic very quickly due to

Critical care environments are complex in nature. Fluctuating team dynamics and the plethora of technology and equipment create unforeseen demands on clinicians. Such environments become chaotic very quickly due to the chronic exposure to unpredictable clusters of events. In order to cope with this complexity, clinicians tend to develop ad-hoc adaptations to function in an effective manner. It is these adaptations or "deviations" from expected behaviors that provide insight into the processes that shape the overall behavior of the complex system. The research described in this manuscript examines the cognitive basis of clinicians' adaptive mechanisms and presents a methodology for studying the same. Examining interactions in complex systems is difficult due to the disassociation between the nature of the environment and the tools available to analyze underlying processes. In this work, the use of a mixed methodology framework to study trauma critical care, a complex environment, is presented. The hybrid framework supplements existing methods of data collection (qualitative observations) with quantitative methods (use of electronic tags) to capture activities in the complex system. Quantitative models of activities (using Hidden Markov Modeling) and theoretical models of deviations were developed to support this mixed methodology framework. The quantitative activity models developed were tested with a set of fifteen simulated activities that represent workflow in trauma care. A mean recognition rate of 87.5% was obtained in automatically recognizing activities. Theoretical models, on the other hand, were developed using field observations of 30 trauma cases. The analysis of the classification schema (with substantial inter-rater reliability) and 161 deviations identified shows that expertise and role played by the clinician in the trauma team influences the nature of deviations made (p<0.01). The results shows that while expert clinicians deviate to innovate, deviations of novices often result in errors. Experts' flexibility and adaptiveness allow their deviations to generate innovative ideas, in particular when dynamic adjustments are required in complex situations. The findings suggest that while adherence to protocols and standards is important for novice practitioners to reduce medical errors and ensure patient safety, there is strong need for training novices in coping with complex situations as well.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Research, design and validation of a cognitive aid to support the reprocessing of flexible endoscopes

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The objective of this project was to evaluate human factors based cognitive aids on endoscope reprocessing. The project stems from recent failures in reprocessing (cleaning) endoscopes, contributing to the

The objective of this project was to evaluate human factors based cognitive aids on endoscope reprocessing. The project stems from recent failures in reprocessing (cleaning) endoscopes, contributing to the spread of harmful bacterial and viral agents between patients. Three themes were found to represent a majority of problems: 1) lack of visibility (parts and tools were difficult to identify), 2) high memory demands, and 3) insufficient user feedback. In an effort to improve completion rate and eliminate error, cognitive aids were designed utilizing human factors principles that would replace existing manufacturer visual aids. Then, a usability test was conducted, which compared the endoscope reprocessing performance of novices using the standard manufacturer-provided visual aids and the new cognitive aids. Participants successfully completed 87.1% of the reprocessing procedure in the experimental condition with the use of the cognitive aids, compared to 46.3% in the control condition using only existing support materials. Twenty-five of sixty subtasks showed significant improvement in completion rates. When given a cognitive aid designed with human factors principles, participants were able to more successfully complete the reprocessing task. This resulted in an endoscope that was more likely to be safe for patient use.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Physical activity counseling knowledge, attitudes, and practices among nurse practitioners and physician assistants

Description

Health care providers (HCPs) are an important source of physical activity (PA) information. Two studies were conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively examine nurse practitioners'(NPs) and physician assistants' current PA counseling

Health care providers (HCPs) are an important source of physical activity (PA) information. Two studies were conducted to qualitatively and quantitatively examine nurse practitioners'(NPs) and physician assistants' current PA counseling practices, knowledge and confidence to provide PA counseling and providers' perceptions about their current PA counseling practices. The specific aims for these two studies included quantitatively and qualitatively identifying the prevalence of PA counseling, perceived counseling knowledge and confidence, and educational training related to counseling. In study 1, survey respondents were currently practicing NPs and physician assistants. Participants completed a modified version of the Promotion of Physical Activity by Nurse Practitioners Questionnaire either online or in person during a population specific conference. The majority of both NP and physician assistant respondents reported routinely counseling patients about PA. There were no differences in perceived knowledge or confidence to provide PA counseling between the two populations. Approximately half of all respondents reported receiving training to provide PA counseling as part of their educational preparation for becoming a health practitioner. Nearly three-quarters of respondents reported interest in receiving additional PA counseling training. In study 2, five focus groups (FGs), stratified by practice type, were conducted with NPs and physician assistants. Both NPs and physician assistants reported discussing PA with their patients, particularly those with chronic illness. Participants reported that discussing lifestyle modifications with patients was the most common type of PA counseling provided. Increased confidence to counsel was associated with having PA knowledge and providing simple counseling, such as lifestyle modifications. Barriers to counseling included having more important things to discuss, lack of time during appointments, the current healthcare system, lack of reimbursement and perceived patient financial barriers. PA recommendation knowledge was highly variable, with few participants reporting specific guidelines. FG participants, while not familiar with the American College of Sports Medicines' "Exercise is Medicine" initiative indicated interest in its use and learning more about it. The findings of these two studies indicate that while NPs and physician assistants are knowledgeable, confident and currently providing some amount of PA counseling to patients, additional training in PA counseling is needed and desired.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011