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The Effect of Exercise on Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise program would improve the adaptive behavior skills in persons with Down syndrome. The exercise intervention, Exercise for Adults with Down Syndrome (ExDS), was a semester long program where adults with Down syndrome participate in twice weekly workouts planned and executed by Arizona State University students. The workouts consisted of an aerobic warm up, aerobic exercises, resistance exercises, balance exercises and stretches. The participants' adaptive behavior and cognitive planning ability were assessed before ExDS and after ExDS. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Second Edition (ABAS-II) was used to measure adaptive behavior. The ABAS-II consisted of a forum that addressed the Social, Conceptual and Practical domains of adaptive behavior and was filled out by the participants' caregiver. The Tower of London (ToL) was used to measure cognitive planning ability. The change in the ABAS-II scores from pre- to post-testing were statistically insignificant. The change from pre- to post-testing in the ToL scores approached statistical significance. Limitations included bias caregiver perception and respondent inconsistency. There is a need for further research on the effect of exercise on the adaptive behavior in adults with Down syndrome.

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2018-12

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Stationary cycling did not improve reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome

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The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on information processing measured by simple reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on information processing measured by simple reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions over eight weeks. 1) Eleven older adults with Down Syndrome completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than voluntary cycling. 2) Eight older adults with Down Syndrome completed the voluntary cycling (VC) intervention and 3) two older adults with Down Syndrome were in our no cycling (NC) intervention. Both exercise groups participated in the eight-week, supervised exercise protocol for at least three, 30-minute sessions per week. None of our results reached conventional levels of significance. However, the greatest improvements in reaction time occurred following the voluntary cycling (VC) intervention. Our results are discussed with respect to physiological differences in older adults with DS that may limit improvements in executive function following exercise. These physiological differences and limitations include muscle atrophy and reduced perceptions, age related latency between motor cortex activation and onset of muscle activity, as well as general age related slowing in reaction time. Although it may be difficult to improve executive function in older adults with DS, we suggest other benefits to exercise which include improving social communication, gross motor skills, and exercise perception. Future research should continue to investigate the effects of exercise on multiple areas in older adults with DS with the hopes of improving quality of life.

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2018-05

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Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Motor Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use

This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), a voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for three 30-minute sessions a week, for a total of eight weeks. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and manual dexterity at the beginning and at the end of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that information processing and manual dexterity improved following 8 weeks of cycling for the ACT group. These results were not seen for individuals in the voluntary and non-exercise groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Cognitive Planning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines cognitive planning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-three participants were randomly assigned to assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., at least 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), voluntary

This study examines cognitive planning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-three participants were randomly assigned to assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., at least 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and no cycling (NC) control group. Both AC and VC rode a stationary bicycle three times/week, 30 minutes/session, for eight weeks in duration. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed cognitive planning at the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (i.e., posttest) of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that cognitive planning improved following eight weeks of cycling for the AC group. The same results were not seen for individuals in the VC or NC groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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Date Created
2015-05

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The Effects of Acute Resistance Training (RT) and Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Executive Functioning in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

The influence of exercise on cognitive function is an important topic. This study examines the effects of different interventions on executive functioning, specifically on cognitive planning, which is a sub-category of executive function, in adults with Down syndrome. Research has

The influence of exercise on cognitive function is an important topic. This study examines the effects of different interventions on executive functioning, specifically on cognitive planning, which is a sub-category of executive function, in adults with Down syndrome. Research has shown that an acute bout of Assisted Cycle Therapy improved manual motor functioning, cognitive planning, and information processing in adolescents with Down syndrome but there is a lack of research when it comes to resistance training. Fourteen adults with Down syndrome completed acute sessions of Assisted Cycle Therapy, Resistance Training, and No Training. Cognitive planning was measured by the Tower of London test. The results show that cognitive planning can be improved following Assisted Cycle Therapy. An increase in cognitive planning was also present in the No Training group which may be a result of cognitive stimulating games that were played. In conclusion, this study suggests that teachers, therapists, etc. that work with adults with DS, should be sure to include a cognitive component in all activities.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Examination of One Month Retention of Executive Function in Assisted Cycling Therapy on Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence) and assisted (AC) (i.e., 30% faster

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence) and assisted (AC) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor) cycling groups, with one participant used as a control (NC). Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (posttest) of the 8-week session, three executive functions including: set-switching, inhibition, and cognitive planning, were tested. Approximately one month after the posttest, all participants underwent the cognitive testing again. The results showed that for the AC group cognitive planning improved after eight weeks of assisted cycling and these improvements were maintained after one month of no cycling. However, no significant differences were found between the cycling groups for our measure of inhibition. Set-switching appeared to be improved by both types of exercise, rather than only assisted, but the improvements were not maintained during the one month retention period for either group. Thus, our results suggest that Assisted Cycling causes potentially permanent changes in the brain in regards to cognitive planning.

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Date Created
2014-05

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The Effects of Acute Resistance Training (RT) and Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Inhibitory Control in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on inhibitory control in adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) session, a Resistance Training (RT) session, and a

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on inhibitory control in adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) session, a Resistance Training (RT) session, and a session of No Training (NT). In the baseline assessment, 1-repetition max (1RM) measurements and voluntary pedal rate measurements were taken. In the resistance training session, the leg press, chest press, seated row, leg curl, shoulder press, and latissimus pulldown were performed. In the cycling intervention, the participant completed 30 minutes of cycling. The Erikson Flanker task was administered prior to each session (i.e., pretest) and after the intervention (i.e., post-test). The results were somewhat consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition time improved more following RT and ACT than NT. there was also a significant difference between ACT and NT. Additionally, it was hypothesized that all measures would improve following each acute exercise intervention, but the most significant improvements were seen following ACT. In conclusion, an acute session of ACT demonstrated a significant trend towards improvements in inhibitory control in adults with DS which we interpreted using a model of neural changes.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy on Inhibition in Stroke Survivors

Description

Executive function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors because it is critical to everyday tasks (e.g., driving, cooking, etc.). An innovative way to improve executive function may be Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT). This is among

Executive function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors because it is critical to everyday tasks (e.g., driving, cooking, etc.). An innovative way to improve executive function may be Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT). This is among the first studies to use a Stroop task to measure inhibition, selective attention, and information processing speed following ACT in stroke survivors. Twenty-three participants post-stroke performed ACT, voluntary cycling (VC) and no cycling (NC). The results showed that there were improvements in the Stroop task following an acute session of ACT but not following VC or NC. These results suggest that ACT resulted in increased afferent information which may have resulted in increased arousal and excitability in regions of the prefrontal cortex. These factors have been shown to improve executive function.

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Date Created
2017-05

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The effects of assisted cycle therapy on executive and motor functioning in older adults

Description

This study examines cognitive and motor function in typical older adults following acute exercise. Ten older adults (Mage = 65.1) completed a single session of assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), voluntary cycling (VC)

This study examines cognitive and motor function in typical older adults following acute exercise. Ten older adults (Mage = 65.1) completed a single session of assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. These sessions were randomized and separated by approximately one week. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for 30-minutes each session. These sessions were separated by at least two days. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and set shifting and motor testing including gross and fine motor performance at the beginning and at the end of each session. Consistent with our hypothesis concerning manual dexterity, the results showed that manual dexterity improved following the ACT session more than the VC or NC sessions. Improvements in set shifting were also found for the ACT session but not for the VC or NC sessions. The results are interpreted with respect to improvements in neurological function in older adults following acute cycling exercise. These improvements are balance, manual dexterity, and set shifting which have a positive effects on activities of daily living; such as, decrease risk of falls, improve movements like eating and handwriting, and increase ability to multitask.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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The Acute Effects of Resistance Training and Assisted Cycling Therapy (Act) on Cognitive Function and Enjoyment of Adults With Down Syndrome: A Pilot Study

Description

Background: Down syndrome is the leading genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. Executive function is an area that people with Down syndrome have a diminished capacity compared to those in the general population. In recent years it has been determined that

Background: Down syndrome is the leading genetic cause of intellectual disabilities. Executive function is an area that people with Down syndrome have a diminished capacity compared to those in the general population. In recent years it has been determined that acute and chronic exercise has a small but positive effect on measures of executive function in typically developed individuals. The effect has been recorded separately in both aerobic, high-rate passive and resistance exercises in adolescents with DS but has not been compared between exercise types in adults with DS. Methods: A randomized crossover study was utilized to determine the effect of resistance exercise, assisted cycling therapy, and no exercise on executive function and enjoyment in adults with Down syndrome. Resistance Training (RT)- participants completed a total of 16- repetitions of approximately 75% of a 1-RM in the leg press, chest press, seated row, and latissimus pulldown. ACT- participants completed 30-minutes of cycling at 35% above voluntary (e.g., self-selected pace) rate. No-Training (NT)- participants spent 35-minutes playing board games. Cognitive assessments were recorded pre- and post- intervention. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Survey was collected post-intervention. Statistics: The cognitive measures and Physical Activity Self-efficacy scale were analyzed using the delta scores (pre-post) in a Linear mixed models analyais. The main effect of sequence (A, B, C) and intervention (RT, ACT, NT), and visit were assessed. Significance level was set with α=0.05. If any differences were detected, the Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to determine differences. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale post scores were compared using a General Linear Model. Alpha was set at 0.05 with a Bonferroni post-hoc test to determine differences. A secondary analysis was conducted investigating the effect of participants that completed testing individually compared to those that completed the testing in a group setting. Results: There were no significant difference in the delta score of any of the measures. The secondary analysis also found no significant difference but showed a trend that those tested individually had opposite results than those tested in a group.

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Date Created
2021