Matching Items (24)

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Stationary cycling did not improve reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome

Description

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on information processing measured by simple reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS).

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on information processing measured by simple reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions over eight weeks. 1) Eleven older adults with Down Syndrome completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than voluntary cycling. 2) Eight older adults with Down Syndrome completed the voluntary cycling (VC) intervention and 3) two older adults with Down Syndrome were in our no cycling (NC) intervention. Both exercise groups participated in the eight-week, supervised exercise protocol for at least three, 30-minute sessions per week. None of our results reached conventional levels of significance. However, the greatest improvements in reaction time occurred following the voluntary cycling (VC) intervention. Our results are discussed with respect to physiological differences in older adults with DS that may limit improvements in executive function following exercise. These physiological differences and limitations include muscle atrophy and reduced perceptions, age related latency between motor cortex activation and onset of muscle activity, as well as general age related slowing in reaction time. Although it may be difficult to improve executive function in older adults with DS, we suggest other benefits to exercise which include improving social communication, gross motor skills, and exercise perception. Future research should continue to investigate the effects of exercise on multiple areas in older adults with DS with the hopes of improving quality of life.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy on Inhibition in Stroke Survivors

Description

Executive function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors because it is critical to everyday tasks (e.g., driving, cooking, etc.). An innovative way to improve executive

Executive function is vital for activities of daily living especially in stroke survivors because it is critical to everyday tasks (e.g., driving, cooking, etc.). An innovative way to improve executive function may be Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT). This is among the first studies to use a Stroop task to measure inhibition, selective attention, and information processing speed following ACT in stroke survivors. Twenty-three participants post-stroke performed ACT, voluntary cycling (VC) and no cycling (NC). The results showed that there were improvements in the Stroop task following an acute session of ACT but not following VC or NC. These results suggest that ACT resulted in increased afferent information which may have resulted in increased arousal and excitability in regions of the prefrontal cortex. These factors have been shown to improve executive function.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Measuring the Effects of Martial Arts and ADHD

Description

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a four-week martial arts program implemented once a week on children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between the

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a four-week martial arts program implemented once a week on children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) between the ages of four and seven. This was a single group, pre- and post-intervention assessment pilot study. The total sample of the study was four children (n=4) and the martial arts classes were based on the Duke Kenpo Little Tiger Program by Jonathan Duke of Mesa, Arizona. Change was measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, 2nd edition (BRIEF-2) parental form and participants were encouraged to record at-home practice. Data were collected pre-intervention and four weeks afterwards. Limitations included small sample size, measurement limitation (e.g., ceiling effect), data based on parental report, a short intervention period, potential instructor bias, and uneven gender distribution. Given the small sample size (n=4), this study did not complete statistical analysis and alternatively described the changing patterns of the participant's ADHD symptoms from BRIEF-2 measures pre and post intervention. The results of this study could not generate the power to detect significance to state significant implications. However, the trends suggested that some participants declined in executive function in certain areas (e.g., task-monitoring and planning) and improved in other areas (e.g., working memory and organization of materials). All participants demonstrated improvement within the cognitive (CRI) scale of the BRIEF-2 and future studies may explore the potential for martial arts interventions in children under seven as a means to improve the cognitive aspect of executive function development. In addition, future studies may consider exploring the role of frequency versus time for at-home martial arts practice for children with ADHD under the age of seven.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

The Effect of Exercise on Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive

Adaptive behavior consists of the social, conceptual and practical skills an individual must execute to function independently in their everyday life. Individuals with Down syndrome have limitations in their adaptive behavior due to cognitive and physical deficits. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise program would improve the adaptive behavior skills in persons with Down syndrome. The exercise intervention, Exercise for Adults with Down Syndrome (ExDS), was a semester long program where adults with Down syndrome participate in twice weekly workouts planned and executed by Arizona State University students. The workouts consisted of an aerobic warm up, aerobic exercises, resistance exercises, balance exercises and stretches. The participants' adaptive behavior and cognitive planning ability were assessed before ExDS and after ExDS. The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System Second Edition (ABAS-II) was used to measure adaptive behavior. The ABAS-II consisted of a forum that addressed the Social, Conceptual and Practical domains of adaptive behavior and was filled out by the participants' caregiver. The Tower of London (ToL) was used to measure cognitive planning ability. The change in the ABAS-II scores from pre- to post-testing were statistically insignificant. The change from pre- to post-testing in the ToL scores approached statistical significance. Limitations included bias caregiver perception and respondent inconsistency. There is a need for further research on the effect of exercise on the adaptive behavior in adults with Down syndrome.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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The Effects of Acute Resistance Training (RT) and Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Inhibitory Control in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on inhibitory control in adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an Assisted Cycling

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on inhibitory control in adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) session, a Resistance Training (RT) session, and a session of No Training (NT). In the baseline assessment, 1-repetition max (1RM) measurements and voluntary pedal rate measurements were taken. In the resistance training session, the leg press, chest press, seated row, leg curl, shoulder press, and latissimus pulldown were performed. In the cycling intervention, the participant completed 30 minutes of cycling. The Erikson Flanker task was administered prior to each session (i.e., pretest) and after the intervention (i.e., post-test). The results were somewhat consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition time improved more following RT and ACT than NT. there was also a significant difference between ACT and NT. Additionally, it was hypothesized that all measures would improve following each acute exercise intervention, but the most significant improvements were seen following ACT. In conclusion, an acute session of ACT demonstrated a significant trend towards improvements in inhibitory control in adults with DS which we interpreted using a model of neural changes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

REFLEX: Relative Executive Function Level Examination

Description

The goal of this thesis project was to develop a digital, quantitative assessment of executive functioning skills and problem solving abilities. This assessment was intended to serve as a relative

The goal of this thesis project was to develop a digital, quantitative assessment of executive functioning skills and problem solving abilities. This assessment was intended to serve as a relative measure of executive functions and problem solving abilities rather than a diagnosis; the main purpose was to identify areas for improvement and provide individuals with an understanding of their current ability levels. To achieve this goal, we developed a web-based assessment through Unity that used gamelike modifications of Flanker, Antisaccade, Embedded Images, Raven’s Matrices, and Color / Order Memory tasks. Participants were invited to access the assessment at www.ExecutiveFunctionLevel.com to complete the assessment and their results were analyzed. The findings of this project indicate that these tasks accurately represent executive functioning skills, the Flanker Effect is present in the collected data, and there is a notable correlation between each of the REFLEX challenges. In conclusion, we successfully developed a short, gamelike, online assessment of executive functioning and problem solving abilities. Future developments of REFLEX could look into immediate scoring, developing a mobile application, and externally validating the results.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

REFLEX: Relative Executive Function Level Examination

Description

The goal of this thesis project was to develop a digital, quantitative assessment of executive functioning skills and problem solving abilities. This assessment was intended to serve as a relative

The goal of this thesis project was to develop a digital, quantitative assessment of executive functioning skills and problem solving abilities. This assessment was intended to serve as a relative measure of executive functions and problem solving abilities rather than a diagnosis; the main purpose was to identify areas for improvement and provide individuals with an understanding of their current ability levels. To achieve this goal, we developed a web-based assessment through Unity that used gamelike modifications of Flanker, Antisaccade, Embedded Images, Raven’s Matrices, and Color / Order Memory tasks. Participants were invited to access the assessment at www.ExecutiveFunctionLevel.com to complete the assessment and their results were analyzed. The findings of this project indicate that these tasks accurately represent executive functioning skills, the Flanker Effect is present in the collected data, and there is a notable correlation between each of the REFLEX challenges. In conclusion, we successfully developed a short, gamelike, online assessment of executive functioning and problem solving abilities. Future developments of REFLEX could look into immediate scoring, developing a mobile application, and externally validating the results.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Cognitive Planning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines cognitive planning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-three participants were randomly assigned to assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., at least

This study examines cognitive planning in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-three participants were randomly assigned to assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., at least 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and no cycling (NC) control group. Both AC and VC rode a stationary bicycle three times/week, 30 minutes/session, for eight weeks in duration. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed cognitive planning at the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (i.e., posttest) of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that cognitive planning improved following eight weeks of cycling for the AC group. The same results were not seen for individuals in the VC or NC groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Examination of One Month Retention of Executive Function in Assisted Cycling Therapy on Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary

This study examines the one month retention of executive function benefits gained by adolescents with Down syndrome after an 8-week aerobic exercise intervention. Sixteen participants were randomly divided between voluntary (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence) and assisted (AC) (i.e., 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor) cycling groups, with one participant used as a control (NC). Both cycling groups rode a stationary bicycle, for 30 minutes, three times a week, for eight weeks. At the beginning (i.e., pretest) and end (posttest) of the 8-week session, three executive functions including: set-switching, inhibition, and cognitive planning, were tested. Approximately one month after the posttest, all participants underwent the cognitive testing again. The results showed that for the AC group cognitive planning improved after eight weeks of assisted cycling and these improvements were maintained after one month of no cycling. However, no significant differences were found between the cycling groups for our measure of inhibition. Set-switching appeared to be improved by both types of exercise, rather than only assisted, but the improvements were not maintained during the one month retention period for either group. Thus, our results suggest that Assisted Cycling causes potentially permanent changes in the brain in regards to cognitive planning.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Effects of Acute Resistance Training (RT) and Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Executive Functioning in Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

The influence of exercise on cognitive function is an important topic. This study examines the effects of different interventions on executive functioning, specifically on cognitive planning, which is a sub-category

The influence of exercise on cognitive function is an important topic. This study examines the effects of different interventions on executive functioning, specifically on cognitive planning, which is a sub-category of executive function, in adults with Down syndrome. Research has shown that an acute bout of Assisted Cycle Therapy improved manual motor functioning, cognitive planning, and information processing in adolescents with Down syndrome but there is a lack of research when it comes to resistance training. Fourteen adults with Down syndrome completed acute sessions of Assisted Cycle Therapy, Resistance Training, and No Training. Cognitive planning was measured by the Tower of London test. The results show that cognitive planning can be improved following Assisted Cycle Therapy. An increase in cognitive planning was also present in the No Training group which may be a result of cognitive stimulating games that were played. In conclusion, this study suggests that teachers, therapists, etc. that work with adults with DS, should be sure to include a cognitive component in all activities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05