Matching Items (6)

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Developing an Educational Manufacturing Simulation

Description

Simulation games are widely used in engineering education, especially for industrial engineering and operations management. A well-made simulation game aids in achieving learning objectives for students and minimal additional teaching

Simulation games are widely used in engineering education, especially for industrial engineering and operations management. A well-made simulation game aids in achieving learning objectives for students and minimal additional teaching by an instructor. Many simulation games exist for engineering education, but newer technologies now exist that improve the overall experience of developing and using these games. Although current solutions teach concepts adequately, poorly-maintained platforms distract from the key learning objectives, detracting from the value of the activities. A backend framework was created to facilitate an educational, competitive, participatory simulation of a manufacturing system that is intended to be easy to maintain, deploy, and expand.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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3-D conformance analysis of manufacturing plans using M-maps, by explicating formal GD&T schema from the process plan

Description

A process plan is an instruction set for the manufacture of parts generated from detailed design drawings or CAD models. While these plans are highly detailed about machines, tools, fixtures

A process plan is an instruction set for the manufacture of parts generated from detailed design drawings or CAD models. While these plans are highly detailed about machines, tools, fixtures and operation parameters; tolerances typically show up in less formal manner in such plans, if at all. It is not uncommon to see only dimensional plus/minus values on rough sketches accompanying the instructions. On the other hand, design drawings use standard GD&T (Geometrical Dimensioning and tolerancing) symbols with datums and DRFs (Datum Reference Frames) clearly specified. This is not to say that process planners do not consider tolerances; they are implied by way of choices of fixtures, tools, machines, and operations. When converting design tolerances to the manufacturing datum flow, process planners do tolerance charting, that is based on operation sequence but the resulting plans cannot be audited for conformance to design specification.

In this thesis, I will present a framework for explicating the GD&T schema implied by machining process plans. The first step is to derive the DRFs from the fixturing method in each set-up. Then basic dimensions for the features to be machined in each set up are determined with respect to the extracted DRF. Using shop data for the machines and operations involved, the range of possible geometric variations are estimated for each type of tolerances (form, size, orientation, and position). The sequence of manufacturing operations determines the datum flow chain. Once we have a formal manufacturing GD&T schema, we can analyze and compare it to tolerance specifications from design using the T-map math model. Since the model is based on the manufacturing process plan, it is called resulting T-map or m-map. Then the process plan can be validated by adjusting parameters so that the m-map lies within the T-map created for the design drawing. How the m-map is created to be compared with the T-map is the focus of this research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

Development of horizontal coordination mechanisms for planning agricultural production

Description

Agricultural supply chains are complex systems which pose significant challenges beyond those of traditional supply chains. These challenges include: long lead times, stochastic yields, short shelf lives and a highly

Agricultural supply chains are complex systems which pose significant challenges beyond those of traditional supply chains. These challenges include: long lead times, stochastic yields, short shelf lives and a highly distributed supply base. This complexity makes coordination critical to prevent food waste and other inefficiencies. Yet, supply chains of fresh produce suffer from high levels of food waste; moreover, their high fragmentation places a great economic burden on small and medium sized farms.

This research develops planning tools tailored to the production/consolidation level in the supply chain, taking the perspective of an agricultural cooperative—a business model which presents unique coordination challenges. These institutions are prone to internal conflict brought about by strategic behavior, internal competition and the distributed nature of production information, which members keep private.

A mechanism is designed to coordinate agricultural production in a distributed manner with asymmetrically distributed information. Coordination is achieved by varying the prices of goods in an auction like format and allowing participants to choose their supply quantities; the auction terminates when production commitments match desired supply.

In order to prevent participants from misrepresenting their information, strategic bidding is formulated from the farmer’s perspective as an optimization problem; thereafter, optimal bidding strategies are formulated to refine the structure of the coordination mechanism in order to minimize the negative impact of strategic bidding. The coordination mechanism is shown to be robust against strategic behavior and to provide solutions with a small optimality gap. Additional information and managerial insights are obtained from bidding data collected throughout the mechanism. It is shown that, through hierarchical clustering, farmers can be effectively classified according to their cost structures.

Finally, considerations of stochastic yields as they pertain to coordination are addressed. Here, the farmer’s decision of how much to plant in order to meet contracted supply is modeled as a newsvendor with stochastic yields; furthermore, options contracts are made available to the farmer as tools for enhancing coordination. It is shown that the use of option contracts reduces the gap between expected harvest quantities and the contracted supply, thus facilitating coordination.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Fix-and-optimize heuristic and MP-based approaches for capacitated lot sizing problem with setup carryover, setup splitting and backlogging

Description

In this thesis, a single-level, multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with setup carryover, setup splitting and backlogging is investigated. This problem is typically used in the tactical and operational planning

In this thesis, a single-level, multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with setup carryover, setup splitting and backlogging is investigated. This problem is typically used in the tactical and operational planning stage, determining the optimal production quantities and sequencing for all the products in the planning horizon. Although the capacitated lot sizing problems have been investigated with many different features from researchers, the simultaneous consideration of setup carryover and setup splitting is relatively new. This consideration is beneficial to reduce costs and produce feasible production schedule. Setup carryover allows the production setup to be continued between two adjacent periods without incurring extra setup costs and setup times. Setup splitting permits the setup to be partially finished in one period and continued in the next period, utilizing the capacity more efficiently and remove infeasibility of production schedule.

The main approaches are that first the simple plant location formulation is adopted to reformulate the original model. Furthermore, an extended formulation by redefining the idle period constraints is developed to make the formulation tighter. Then for the purpose of evaluating the solution quality from heuristic, three types of valid inequalities are added to the model. A fix-and-optimize heuristic with two-stage product decomposition and period decomposition strategies is proposed to solve the formulation. This generic heuristic solves a small portion of binary variables and all the continuous variables rapidly in each subproblem. In addition, the case with demand backlogging is also incorporated to demonstrate that making additional assumptions to the basic formulation does not require to completely altering the heuristic.

The contribution of this thesis includes several aspects: the computational results show the capability, flexibility and effectiveness of the approaches. The average optimality gap is 6% for data without backlogging and 8% for data with backlogging, respectively. In addition, when backlogging is not allowed, the performance of fix-and-optimize heuristic is stable regardless of period length. This gives advantage of using such approach to plan longer production schedule. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed solution approaches is analyzed so that later research on similar topics could compare the result with different solution strategies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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A simulation study of Kanban levels for assembly lines and systems

Description

In the entire supply chain, demand planning is one of the crucial aspects of the production planning process. If the demand is not estimated accurately, then it causes revenue loss.

In the entire supply chain, demand planning is one of the crucial aspects of the production planning process. If the demand is not estimated accurately, then it causes revenue loss. Past research has shown forecasting can be used to help the demand planning process for production. However, accurate forecasting from historical data is difficult in today's complex volatile market. Also it is not the only factor that influences the demand planning. Factors, namely, Consumer's shifting interest and buying power also influence the future demand. Hence, this research study focuses on Just-In-Time (JIT) philosophy using a pull control strategy implemented with a Kanban control system to control the inventory flow. Two different product structures, serial product structure and assembly product structure, are considered for this research. Three different methods: the Toyota Production System model, a histogram model and a cost minimization model, have been used to find the number of kanbans that was used in a computer simulated Just-In-Time Kanban System. The simulation model was built to execute the designed scenarios for both the serial and assembly product structure. A test was performed to check the significance effects of various factors on system performance. Results of all three methods were collected and compared to indicate which method provides the most effective way to determine number of kanbans at various conditions. It was inferred that histogram model and cost minimization models are more accurate in calculating the required kanbans for various manufacturing conditions. Method-1 fails to adjust the kanbans when the backordered cost increases or when product structure changes. Among the product structures, serial product structures proved to be effective when Method-2 or Method-3 is used to calculate the kanban numbers for the system. The experimental result data also indicated that the lower container capacity collects more backorders in the system, which increases the inventory cost, than the high container capacity for both serial and assembly product structures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Matching supply and demand using dynamic quotation strategies

Description

Today's competitive markets force companies to constantly engage in the complex task of managing their demand. In make-to-order manufacturing or service systems, the demand of a product is shaped by

Today's competitive markets force companies to constantly engage in the complex task of managing their demand. In make-to-order manufacturing or service systems, the demand of a product is shaped by price and lead times, where high price and lead time quotes ensure profitability for supplier, but discourage the customers from placing orders. Low price and lead times, on the other hand, generally result in high demand, but do not necessarily ensure profitability. The price and lead time quotation problem considers the trade-off between offering high and low prices and lead times. The recent practices in make-to- order manufacturing companies reveal the importance of dynamic quotation strategies, under which the prices and lead time quotes flexibly change depending on the status of the system. In this dissertation, the objective is to model a make-to-order manufacturing system and explore various aspects of dynamic quotation strategies such as the behavior of optimal price and lead time decisions, the impact of customer preferences on optimal decisions, the benefits of employing dynamic quotation in comparison to simpler quotation strategies, and the benefits of coordinating price and lead time decisions. I first consider a manufacturer that receives demand from spot purchasers (who are quoted dynamic price and lead times), as well as from contract customers who have agree- ments with the manufacturer with fixed price and lead time terms. I analyze how customer preferences affect the optimal price and lead time decisions, the benefits of dynamic quo- tation, and the optimal mix of spot purchaser and contract customers. These analyses necessitate the computation of expected tardiness of customer orders at the moment cus- tomer enters the system. Hence, in the second part of the dissertation, I develop method- ologies to compute the expected tardiness in multi-class priority queues. For the trivial single class case, a closed formulation is obtained. For the more complex multi-class case, numerical inverse Laplace transformation algorithms are developed. In the last part of the dissertation, I model a decentralized system with two components. Marketing department determines the price quotes with the objective of maximizing revenues, and manufacturing department determines the lead time quotes to minimize lateness costs. I discuss the ben- efits of coordinating price and lead time decisions, and develop an incentivization scheme to reduce the negative impacts of lack of coordination.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012