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Understanding Differences Between Susceptibility and Resistance to White-Nose Syndrome in Bats: Methodological Optimization

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White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease that infects hibernating bats of multiple species across large portions of eastern North America. To date, WNS has been responsible for the deaths of over seven million bats. It is not yet known

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease that infects hibernating bats of multiple species across large portions of eastern North America. To date, WNS has been responsible for the deaths of over seven million bats. It is not yet known why certain species are able to resist infection. Since the fungus invades the skin and some resistant species show no signs of the characteristic cutaneous lesions, it seems likely that resistant species contain specific defense mechanisms within their skin, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and other immunologically relevant proteins expressed by specific cell types or as secreted soluble components. Proteomics could be a useful tool for understanding differences in susceptibility, and could help identify AMPs that could be synthesized and used as control agents against the spread of the causative fungus. This study is the first to optimize proteomics methods for bat wing tissues in order to compare the skin proteomes of species variably impacted by WNS, including those of two endangered species. Further tests are planned to investigate methods of increasing protein yield without altering the size of the tissue sample collected, as well as the analysis of mass spectrometry data from processed skin tissues of five bat species differentially affected by WNS.

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2018-05

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Xerostomia and the Microbiome of the Mouth

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Is it possible to treat the mouth as a natural environment, and determine new methods to keep the microbiome in check? The need for biodiversity in health may suggest that every species carries out a specific function that is required

Is it possible to treat the mouth as a natural environment, and determine new methods to keep the microbiome in check? The need for biodiversity in health may suggest that every species carries out a specific function that is required to maintain equilibrium and homeostasis within the oral cavity. Furthermore, the relationship between the microbiome and its host is mutually beneficial because the host is providing microbes with an environment in which they can flourish and, in turn, keep their host healthy. Reviewing examples of larger scale environmental shifts could provide a window by which scientists can make hypotheses. Certain medications and healthcare treatments have been proven to cause xerostomia. This disorder is characterized by a dry mouth, and known to be associated with a change in the composition, and reduction, of saliva. Two case studies performed by Bardow et al, and Leal et al, tested and studied the relationships of certain medications and confirmed their side effects on the salivary glands [2,3]. Their results confirmed a relationship between specific medicines, and the correlating complaints of xerostomia. In addition, Vissink et al conducted case studies that helped to further identify how radiotherapy causes hyposalivation of the salivary glands [4]. Specifically patients that have been diagnosed with oral cancer, and are treated by radiotherapy, have been diagnosed with xerostomia. As stated prior, studies have shown that patients having an ecologically balanced and diverse microbiome tend to have healthier mouths. The oral cavity is like any biome, consisting of commensalism within itself and mutualism with its host. Due to the decreased salivary output, caused by xerostomia, increased parasitic bacteria build up within the oral cavity thus causing dental disease. Every human body contains a personalized microbiome that is essential to maintaining health but capable of eliciting disease. The Human Oral Microbiomics Database (HOMD) is a set of reference 16S rRNA gene sequences. These are then used to define individual human oral taxa. By conducting metagenomic experiments at the molecular and cellular level, scientists can identify and label micro species that inhabit the mouth during parasitic outbreaks or a shifting of the microbiome. Because the HOMD is incomplete, so is our ability to cure, or prevent, oral disease. The purpose of the thesis is to research what is known about xerostomia and its effects on the complex microbiome of the oral cavity. It is important that researchers determine whether this particular perspective is worth considering. In addition, the goal is to create novel experiments for treatment and prevention of dental diseases.

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2015-05