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The Effects of Urban Edge Proximity on Mesopredator Populations Adjacent to Gold Canyon, Az

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Urbanization is a landscape-level alteration of habitat that can lead to habitat fragmentation, degradation, and the introduction of nonnative species. Due to their life history characteristics, mammalian predators are particularly vulnerable to these effects. The categorization of many species as

Urbanization is a landscape-level alteration of habitat that can lead to habitat fragmentation, degradation, and the introduction of nonnative species. Due to their life history characteristics, mammalian predators are particularly vulnerable to these effects. The categorization of many species as synanthropic, benefiting from human development, has been difficult as species have a gradient of responses to urbanization. Although coyotes, gray foxes and bobcats have all been shown to benefit from light to moderate levels of urbanization, often due to the increase in food resources, they typically require access to natural areas as escape cover. Camera traps at varying distances were used to document mesopredator response to the urban edge of Gold Canyon, Arizona from November 2015 through March 2016. Coyote, gray fox and bobcat relative abundance did not vary with distance to urban edge during this time period. Although, negative trends suggest that a larger scale study may reveal a negative relationship between distance to urban edge and mesopredator abundance for all 3 of these species. The efficacy of different baits at increasing mesopredator detections was also tested, with insignificant results. However, coyotes seemed to be more likely to interact with Carman's Raccoon Lure No. 2 than coyote urine. Understanding the responses of mesopredators to urbanization will allow us to better coexist with these vulnerable species as land continues to be developed at high rates across the globe.

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2016-05

A Review on the Generation, Determination and Mitigation of Urban Heat Island

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Urban Heat Island (UHI) is considered as one of the major problems in the 21st century posed to human beings as a result of urbanization and industrialization of human civilization. The large amount of heat generated from urban structures, as

Urban Heat Island (UHI) is considered as one of the major problems in the 21st century posed to human beings as a result of urbanization and industrialization of human civilization. The large amount of heat generated from urban structures, as they consume and re-radiate solar radiations, and from the anthropogenic heat sources are the main causes of UHI. The two heat sources increase the temperatures of an urban area as compared to its surroundings, which is known as Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII). The problem is even worse in cities or metropolises with large population and extensive economic activities. The estimated three billion people living in the urban areas in the world are directly exposed to the problem, which will be increased significantly in the near future. Due to the severity of the problem, vast research effort has been dedicated and a wide range of literature is available for the subject. The literature available in this area includes the latest research approaches, concepts, methodologies, latest investigation tools and mitigation measures. This study was carried out to review and summarize this research area through an investigation of the most important feature of UHI. It was concluded that the heat re-radiated by the urban structures plays the most important role which should be investigated in details to study urban heating especially the UHI. It was also concluded that the future research should be focused on design and planning parameters for reducing the effects of urban heat island and ultimately living in a better environment.

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2007-09-27