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Personal Memories and Social Associations: How Positive Emotions Influence the Activation of Implicit Prejudices

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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two positive discrete emotions, awe and nurturant love, on implicit prejudices. After completing an emotion induction task, participants completed Implicit Association Test blocks where they paired photos of Arab

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two positive discrete emotions, awe and nurturant love, on implicit prejudices. After completing an emotion induction task, participants completed Implicit Association Test blocks where they paired photos of Arab and White individuals with "good" and "bad" evaluations. We hypothesized that nurturant love would increase the strength of negative evaluations of Arab individuals and positive evaluations of White individuals, whereas awe would decrease the strength of these negative evaluations when compared to a neutral condition. However, we found that both awe and nurturant love increased negative implicit prejudices toward Arab individuals when compared to the neutral condition.

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2018-05

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Scientific Researchers: Are Religious Believers Seen as Being Less Scientific?

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This study investigated whether research by researchers affiliated with a religious academic institution would be seen as of less scientific merit than research done by researchers affiliated with a nonreligious academic institution. Such a bias may exist given the different

This study investigated whether research by researchers affiliated with a religious academic institution would be seen as of less scientific merit than research done by researchers affiliated with a nonreligious academic institution. Such a bias may exist given the different value systems underlying religion and science, the widespread perception of a conflict between religion and science, and research on differences in cognitive styles and stereotypes about religious versus nonreligious people. In this study, U.S. participants recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed an online survey, which included an abstract of an article describing scientific research with authors’ names and academic institutions, and questions on perceived scientific merit, religiosity, spirituality, religion as Quest, and perceived conflict between religion and science. There was a significant difference in the perceived merit of the researchers, with the group believing the researchers were affiliated with a religious academic institution rating the research as lower in scientific merit than the group believing the researchers were affiliated with a nonreligious academic institution. The perceived level of conflict between religion and science was found to moderate the relationship, such that higher levels of perceived conflict between religion and science showed a greater difference in scientific merit between groups.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Are Online Comparisons Damaging our In-Person Connections? Effects of Social Media Use on Romantic Relationships

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Social media has been extensively researched, and its effects on well-being are well established. What is less studied, however, is how social media affects romantic relationships specifically. The few studies that have researched this have found mixed results. Some researchers

Social media has been extensively researched, and its effects on well-being are well established. What is less studied, however, is how social media affects romantic relationships specifically. The few studies that have researched this have found mixed results. Some researchers have found social media to have a positive influence on relationship outcomes, while other have found social media to have a negative influence. In an attempt to reconcile these discrepancies, the current thesis study explored possible mediators between social media use and relationship health outcomes which, to my knowledge, has not been investigated in previous literature. Three moderators were explored: type of social media use (active use versus passive use), relationship-contingent self-esteem, and social comparison orientation. The baseline portion of the study had 547 individuals, recruited from Arizona State University’s SONA system as well as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, who were in a romantic relationship for at least three months; the follow-up portion of the study had 181 participants. Results suggest that women who passively use social media exhibit a negative association between hours per day of social media use and baseline relationship satisfaction. Men who passively use social media exhibited a negative association between hours per day of social media use and follow-up relationship satisfaction, as well as a negative association with baseline commitment. While relationship-contingent self-esteem did not moderate the association between hours per day of social media use and relationship health, it was positively related to both men and women’s baseline relationship satisfaction and baseline commitment. Social comparison orientation (SCO) produced minimal results; women low on SCO exhibited a negative association between social media use and baseline relationship satisfaction, and higher SCO for men was associated with lower baseline commitment. Finally, exploratory post-hoc mediation models revealed that relationship comparisons mediated the association between hours per day of social media use and baseline relationship, as well as baseline commitment, for both men and women. Previous research supports the findings regarding passive social media use, while the findings regarding relationship-contingent self-esteem and relationship comparisons add new findings to the romantic relationship literature.

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Created

Date Created
2019

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Support substitution and provision of sibling support: the role of obligation and resentment on student's mental health

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Older children are expected to serve as support substitutes when parents are not able to adequately provide the support needed to their younger siblings. This exchange of resources may influence the individual who is serving as a substitute to experience

Older children are expected to serve as support substitutes when parents are not able to adequately provide the support needed to their younger siblings. This exchange of resources may influence the individual who is serving as a substitute to experience feelings of obligation and resentment that can ultimately lead to mental health symptoms. The term mental health is broadly conceptualized in this thesis as negative affect and positive affect. Online surveys were conducted on a sample of 170 Arizona State University students to analyze whether the provision of sibling support was related to worse affect. Hypotheses included: 1) provision of support from the student to the sibling will be related to lower positive and higher negative affect, 2) sibling support provision will be related to greater feelings of obligation and resentment, 3) obligation and resentment will mediate the relationship between sibling support provision and affect and 4) gender differences exist in the mediational relationship of sibling support provision, obligation/resentment, and affect. Results showed that sibling support provision is related to higher levels of both negative and positive affect. Moreover, provision of sibling support was significantly related to feelings of obligation and resentment. There was also some evidence for a mediational model, such that there was an indirect effect of sibling support provision on negative and positive affect through feelings of obligation, but not resentment. Lastly, females experienced significantly greater feelings of obligation to provide support, while males experienced significantly greater feelings of resentment. However, there was no evidence of a moderated mediation by gender. These results suggest that sibling support provision is related to affect and one potential explanation is the feelings of obligation engendered by the sibling support provision.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

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The Timing of Parental Divorce on Offspring Gender Attitudes and Behavior

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The outcomes of parental divorce on offspring has been extensively examined in

previous research. How parental divorce predicts gender attitudes and behaviors in offspring, however, is less studied. More specifically, research suggesting when the divorce occurs on young adult offspring attitudes

The outcomes of parental divorce on offspring has been extensively examined in

previous research. How parental divorce predicts gender attitudes and behaviors in offspring, however, is less studied. More specifically, research suggesting when the divorce occurs on young adult offspring attitudes and behaviors has not be reviewed to my knowledge in previous literature. Several instruments were used in the current paper to address how gender-typed attitudes and behaviors are predicted by parental divorce occurring between the age groups of birth-6, 7-12, or 13 and older in relation to individuals from intact families. Participants were 202 individuals, where 75 experienced a parental divorce or separation sometime in their life. Gender attitudes were assessed through the Pacific Attitudes Toward Gender Scale, Attitudes Toward Divorce Scale, Attitudes Toward Marriage Scale, and a scale created for this study on dating expectations. Gender behavior was assessed through scales created for this study: current occupation or major, number of romantic relationships, number of friends with benefits, number of one night stands, safe sex use, and future plans on marrying or having children. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire was also used to determine participants’ self-report of their masculinity or femininity. The results suggest parental divorce occurring between 7 and 12 years predicted more egalitarian gender attitudes compared to other groups. Gender attitudes also partially mediated the relationship between the timing of divorce and gender behavior in an exploratory analysis, although this was only significant for men. Finally, it was found that men whose parents divorced tend to report less safe sex, whereas women from divorced families tend to report more one night stand

relationships than those from intact families. The data were partially supported by previous research of timing, where those whose parents divorced tend to show more egalitarian gender attitudes and behaviors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Pray Harder: Stigma and Support-Seeking Among Religious Persons With Mental Illness

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An expanse of research has demonstrated that persons with mental illness (PWMI) tend to avoid formal psychological treatment.One possible explanation for this failure to pursue formal treatment is the tendency of religious individuals to construe mental illness as spiritual in

An expanse of research has demonstrated that persons with mental illness (PWMI) tend to avoid formal psychological treatment.One possible explanation for this failure to pursue formal treatment is the tendency of religious individuals to construe mental illness as spiritual in nature, leading religious communities to actively discourage emotional and psychological help-seeking through non-spiritual means. The present study examined help-seeking behaviors among religious PWMI by examining the impact of religiosity and gender on the relationship between mental illness stigma and help-seeking behaviors. Results indicate that higher levels of perceived stigma and religious salience relate to higher reported indirect support-seeking (ISS). Moreover, only religious salience appears to significantly relate to ISS among men, whereas perceived mental illness stigma significantly predicts direct and indirect support-seeking behaviors among women.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020

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An Action Dynamics Approach to Assessing Potential Implicit Biases Toward Transgender People

Description

To reveal opinions people may not explicitly portray, researchers have implemented a methodology called the Implicit Associations Test (IAT). While this test saw widespread use after its inception, recent problems have undermined the reliability of the measure. Researchers have begun

To reveal opinions people may not explicitly portray, researchers have implemented a methodology called the Implicit Associations Test (IAT). While this test saw widespread use after its inception, recent problems have undermined the reliability of the measure. Researchers have begun to address these limitations by evaluating different approaches, such as the Action Dynamics paradigm. Like the IAT, the aim of action dynamics is to assess underlying activation and competition amongst beliefs as they unfold in real-time, while adding a number of more sensitive measures, in addition to those used in an IAT. The trajectories of participants’ computer mouse cursors are tracked as they move from a stimulus statement to a response, providing data of the real-time decisions people are making across a number of variables. For this thesis study, the aim was to use an action dynamics paradigm to explore whether implicit biases exist toward transgender people from a larger cisgender population, even if they explicitly support or oppose others with transgender identities. These potential biases were assessed by evaluating the statements people were asked to confirm or disconfirm. There were also a number of analyses conducted in order to investigate whether such predictors such as
participants’ gender or political ideology predicted differences in responses. Although differences were seen in the reaction time to statements of a certain category, the other trajectory measures showed that participants’ implicit and explicit attitudes toward transgender people were aligned. Implications, limitations, and future directions of this
work are then discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2022