Matching Items (122)

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Registered Replication Report: Rand, Greene, & Nowak

Description

In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene

In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned to conditions and who met the protocol inclusion criteria (an intent-to-treat approach that included the 65.9% of participants in the time- pressure condition and 7.5% in the forced-delay condition who did not adhere to the time constraints), and we observed a difference in contributions of −0.37 percentage points compared with an 8.6 percentage point difference calculated from the original data. Analyzing the data as the original article did, including data only for participants who complied with the time constraints, the RRR observed a 10.37 percentage point difference in contributions compared with a 15.31 percentage point difference in the original study. In combination, the results of the intent-to-treat analysis and the compliant-only analysis are consistent with the presence of selection biases and the absence of a causal effect of time pressure on cooperation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-01

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The Influence of Soul Perception on Concepts of Self

Description

Perceptions of the self differ between cultures, generally between those cultures in the West and East. Some of the ways that these individuals from these cultures may differ are in

Perceptions of the self differ between cultures, generally between those cultures in the West and East. Some of the ways that these individuals from these cultures may differ are in their self-construal, their collectivist and individualist tendencies, and how they perceive control in their lives. The current study proposes that some of these differences are influenced by different concepts individuals hold regarding the "soul", or inner self. These concepts may be promoted by the different religious beliefs prominent in different regions. The Soul Perception Index, being developed through this study, measures belief in multiple souls, a universal soul, a single soul, or no soul. It was predicted that a belief in a single soul will correlate with an individual view of the self (individualism, independent self-construal, internal locus of control), and a universal or multi-soul belief will correlate with an interdependent view of the self (collectivism, interdependent self-construal, and external locus of control). We found that these variables did not significantly differ in their relationships with soul belief. However, Indian Hindu participants and Chinese participants seemed to score highly on all self-view variables and all soul perception types indicating that individuals from these cultures may be more predisposed to hold opposing beliefs simultaneously while US Christians are not.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Terrorism and Interdependence: A Study of Altruism

Description

Humans help each other in times of need even when their acts are likely to go unreciprocated. This study examines altruism resulting from feelings of interdependence, and predicts that greater

Humans help each other in times of need even when their acts are likely to go unreciprocated. This study examines altruism resulting from feelings of interdependence, and predicts that greater feelings of interdependence will result in greater willingness to help. Participants were split into four hypothetical situations (terrorism, drunk car crash, sober car crash, control) in which they were able to help. After assessing the subject-target interdependence and the neediness and blameworthiness of the targets in these various situations, participants rated their willingness to help. While results generally followed predictions, the effects were not large enough to be statistically significant. Participants willingness to give specific forms of help only differed significantly between the terrorism and sober car crash condition, however interdependence was a significant predictor of both general and specific forms of help across all conditions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Identification in Stigmatized Groups: Investigating the Role of Status Threat, Concealability, and Stereotype Endorsement

Description

This study tested the effect of status threat on ingroup identification and examined identity concealability and stereotype endorsement as moderators of the relationship. Participants included a visible identity group (Asian

This study tested the effect of status threat on ingroup identification and examined identity concealability and stereotype endorsement as moderators of the relationship. Participants included a visible identity group (Asian men) and a concealable identity group (gay men). Participants were randomized into either a status threat condition, in which they read a vignette that reminded them of a negative stereotype about the target group and discussed positive stereotypes of the group as well, or a control condition that discussed positive stereotypes only. Participants then responded to a measure of ingroup identification and a measure of stereotype endorsement. A significant main effect of status threat on ingroup identification was found, such that participants in the status threat condition showed lower ingroup identification. The interaction of condition and concealability was not significant. The interaction of condition and stereotype endorsement was marginally significant, such that the main effect shows up stronger for those lower on stereotype endorsement. The main effect is interpreted as a potential protective strategy for self-esteem. The stereotype threat interaction is interpreted as a difference in the way that those who do and do not endorse the stereotype view the legitimacy of the status threat.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Personal Memories and Social Associations: How Positive Emotions Influence the Activation of Implicit Prejudices

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two positive discrete emotions, awe and nurturant love, on implicit prejudices. After completing an emotion induction task, participants completed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two positive discrete emotions, awe and nurturant love, on implicit prejudices. After completing an emotion induction task, participants completed Implicit Association Test blocks where they paired photos of Arab and White individuals with "good" and "bad" evaluations. We hypothesized that nurturant love would increase the strength of negative evaluations of Arab individuals and positive evaluations of White individuals, whereas awe would decrease the strength of these negative evaluations when compared to a neutral condition. However, we found that both awe and nurturant love increased negative implicit prejudices toward Arab individuals when compared to the neutral condition.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Are Mate Preferences Shaped by One's Life Stage?

Description

What characteristics do people prefer in potential mates? Previous studies have explored this question, discovering that preferred characteristics vary by people's sex and sexual strategy, but have implied that these

What characteristics do people prefer in potential mates? Previous studies have explored this question, discovering that preferred characteristics vary by people's sex and sexual strategy, but have implied that these preferences remain constant across the lifespan. We suggest, however, that systematic variation exists in individuals' mate preferences across the lifespan, as they shift their investments from mating toward parenting. We suggest that the characteristics of a potential mate can be viewed as affordances that assist or hinder an individual in achieving certain fundamental goals. Incorporating the framework of Life History Theory with this affordance-management approach to social behavior, we propose that an individual's life stage, sex, and life history strategy together serve as the basis for these goals and thereby shape the characteristics people seek in potential mates. Using data collected from participants aged 18-45 recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk, we tested a range of hypotheses derived from our approach. In general, results provide mixed support for a role of life stage in shaping mate preferences. For example, nurturance and social competence were viewed as more necessary characteristics in a mate by participants invested in parenting. Moreover, as their investment in mating increased, females expressed a greater preference for ambition in their potential mates, but males did not. Other predictions were not borne out, however, suggesting that there is still much to be learned from investigating the relationship between life stage and mate preferences.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Evolutionary Social Psychology, Social Dominance Theory, and Implicit Bias in the Criminal Justice System: An Interdisciplinary Insight into Mass Incarceration

Description

The United States has become home to the largest incarcerated population in the world, containing 25% of the world's prisoners (NAACP, 2013). Within this population, young men of color appear

The United States has become home to the largest incarcerated population in the world, containing 25% of the world's prisoners (NAACP, 2013). Within this population, young men of color appear to be severely overrepresented. This phenomenon can be better understood with the aid of a multi-disciplinary approach within the social sciences. Evolutionary theory is combined with multiple psychological and sociological perspectives, in order to more deeply understand the multi-level intersection of prejudice and discrimination against society's disadvantaged or vulnerable populations. A synthesis of the multiple theoretical angles of social dominance theory, affordance management, and life history theory is used to suggest a threat-based, attributional framework for understanding punitive decision-making and policy support. This conceptualization also considers the importance of the legal system in effecting social change. Future research within the legal arena is recommended to enable a more refined understanding of punitive ideology and implicit bias within the criminal justice system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Paradox of Healing and Stigmatization: A Study of Mental Health Stigma in Arab Culture

Description

While the concept of healthcare is largely respected in Arab culture, the stigma underlying mental health is particularly startling. This study examined the differences in mental health treatment-seeking behaviors using

While the concept of healthcare is largely respected in Arab culture, the stigma underlying mental health is particularly startling. This study examined the differences in mental health treatment-seeking behaviors using data from Arabs living in Syria (12.9%) and Arabs (25.6%) and non-Arabs (61.5%) living in the United States of ages 18-60. A Web-based survey was developed to understand how factors like religiosity, acculturation, and positive attitudes towards psychological treatment increased help-seeking behaviors. This survey was also provided in Arabic to include non-English speaking participants. It was hypothesized that Arab-American individuals will be more open to pursuing professional psychological help when suffering from mental symptomology (i.e. anxiety) than individuals who identified as Syrian-Arabs. In contrast, both Syrian-Arabs and Arab-Americans would definitely pursue professional help when suffering from physical symptomology (i.e. ankle sprain). Striking differences were found based on Western acculturation. Findings suggested that Arab-Americans were less inclined towards treatment and more trusting of an in-group physician ("Dr. Ahmed") whereas Syrian-Arabs were more inclined to pursue psychological treatment and preferred to trust an out-group physician ("Dr. Smith"). The results of this study identify main concerns regarding Arab attitudes towards seeking mental health treatment, which can better inform future research and mental health services for this minority.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Validity of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding in Forensic Assessment

Description

Internal and external validity of the BIDR was examined in college students and with forensic clients. The study also investigated the equivalence of the original format of the BIDR and

Internal and external validity of the BIDR was examined in college students and with forensic clients. The study also investigated the equivalence of the original format of the BIDR and the revised (the PDS). Results showed the IM scales of the BIDR and the PDS can be regarded as equivalent, but the SDE scales can not. Correlations with concurrent validity scales were generally stronger for the IM scale than the SDE scale. For both groups, the SDE and IM scales were substantially correlated with each other. Analyses of the undergraduate data did not support Paulhus' intention of two major factors for either the BIDR or the PDS; but did show this pattern for forensic data.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2001-12

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Does Sharing Food Influence Trust and Interdependence?

Description

Food-sharing is central to the human experience, involving biological and sociocultural functions. In small-scale societies, sharing food reduces variance in daily food-consumption, allowing effective risk-management, and creating networks of interdependence.

Food-sharing is central to the human experience, involving biological and sociocultural functions. In small-scale societies, sharing food reduces variance in daily food-consumption, allowing effective risk-management, and creating networks of interdependence. It was hypothesized that trust and interdependence would be fostered between people who shared food. Recruiting 221 participants (51% Female, Mage = 19.31), sharing food was found to decrease trust and interdependence in a Trust Game with $3.00 and a Dictator Game with chocolates. Participants trusted the least and gave the fewest chocolates when sharing food. Contrary to lay beliefs about sharing food, breaking bread with strangers may hinder rather than foster trust and giving in situations where competition over limited resources is salient, or under one-shot scenarios where people are unlikely to see each other again in the future.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020