Matching Items (5)

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Dose-Response Relationship of Medial-Lateral Perturbation Training on Dynamic Stability of Gait

Description

Gait training therapies are methods for improving the walking stability of individuals who have difficulty walking, whether it is due to injury or neuromuscular conditions. Perturbation training that causes individuals

Gait training therapies are methods for improving the walking stability of individuals who have difficulty walking, whether it is due to injury or neuromuscular conditions. Perturbation training that causes individuals to correct their balance and actively improve their stability could potentially lead to longer term benefits for those with unstable gait. Subjects had the medial lateral movement of their center of mass measured through motion-tracking software (D-Flow 3 and Vicon Nexus 2.2). Perturbation training completed with the GRAIL treadmill randomly triggered medial-lateral sway perturbations of 3 cm a total of fifteen times throughout a five minute training period. Data collected to compare baseline, post-training, and one week follow-up dynamic stabilities were recorded over three minutes without any perturbations. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing the results of all subjects at each instance of data collection with each other. Thus, the perturbation training had no significant impact on the dynamic stability of gait. Major limitations that lend to the inconclusive nature of this study include a small sample size, no repetitions, and only one round of training. Further work can be done to better assess the potential impacts of perturbation training on walking stability for therapeutic use.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Perturbation and Sparsification of a Uniform Linear Array

Description

In modern remote sensing, arrays of sensors, such as antennas in radio frequency (RF) systems and microphones in acoustic systems, provide a basis for estimating the direction of arrival of

In modern remote sensing, arrays of sensors, such as antennas in radio frequency (RF) systems and microphones in acoustic systems, provide a basis for estimating the direction of arrival of a narrow-band signal at the sensor array. A Uniform linear array (ULA) is the most well-studied array geometry in that its performance characteristics and limitations are well known, especially for signals originating in the far field. In some instances, the geometry of an array may be perturbed by an environmental disturbance that actually changes its nominal geometry; such as, towing an array behind a moving vehicle. Additionally, sparse arrays have become of interest again due to recent work in co-prime arrays. These sparse arrays contain fewer elements than a ULA but maintain the array length. The effects of these alterations to a ULA are of interest. Given this motivation, theoretical and experimental (i.e. via computer simulation) processes are used to determine quantitative and qualitative effects of perturbation and sparsification on standard metrics of array performance. These metrics include: main lobe gain, main lobe width and main lobe to side lobe ratio. Furthermore, in order to ascertain results/conclusions, these effects are juxtaposed with the performance of a ULA. Through the perturbation of each element following the first element drawn from a uniform distribution centered around the nominal position, it was found that both the theoretical mean and sample mean are relatively similar to the beam pattern of the full array. Meanwhile, by using a sparsification method of maintaining all the lags, it was found that this particular method was unnecessary. Simply taking out any three elements while maintaining the length of the array will produce similar results. Some configurations of elements give a better performance based on the metrics of interest in comparison to the ULA. These results demonstrate that a sparsified, perturbed or sparsified and perturbed array can be used in place of a Uniform Linear Array depending on the application.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Corrective Responses to Auditory Feedback Perturbations During Speaking

Description

The brain continuously monitors speech output to detect potential errors between its sensory prediction and its sensory production (Daliri et al., 2020). When the brain encounters an error, it generates

The brain continuously monitors speech output to detect potential errors between its sensory prediction and its sensory production (Daliri et al., 2020). When the brain encounters an error, it generates a corrective motor response, usually in the opposite direction, to reduce the effect of the error. Previous studies have shown that the type of auditory error received may impact a participant’s corrective response. In this study, we examined whether participants respond differently to categorical or non-categorical errors. We applied two types of perturbation in real-time by shifting the first formant (F1) and second formant (F2) at three different magnitudes. The vowel /ɛ/ was shifted toward the vowel /æ/ in the categorical perturbation condition. In the non-categorical perturbation condition, the vowel /ɛ/ was shifted to a sound outside of the vowel quadrilateral (increasing both F1 and F2). Our results showed that participants responded to the categorical perturbation while they did not respond to the non-categorical perturbation. Additionally, we found that in the categorical perturbation condition, as the magnitude of the perturbation increased, the magnitude of the response increased. Overall, our results suggest that the brain may respond differently to categorical and non-categorical errors, and the brain is highly attuned to errors in speech.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Does Auditory Feedback Perturbation Influence Categorical Perception of Vowels?

Description

Speech perception and production are bidirectionally related, and they influence each other. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between speech perception and speech production. It

Speech perception and production are bidirectionally related, and they influence each other. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between speech perception and speech production. It is known that applying auditory perturbations during speech production causes subjects to alter their productions (e.g., change their formant frequencies). In other words, previous studies have examined the effects of altered speech perception on speech production. However, in this study, we examined potential effects of speech production on speech perception. Subjects completed a block of a categorical perception task followed by a block of a speaking or a listening task followed by another block of the categorical perception task. Subjects completed three blocks of the speaking task and three blocks of the listening task. In the three blocks of a given task (speaking or listening) auditory feedback was 1) normal, 2) altered to be less variable, or 3) altered to be more variable. Unlike previous studies, we used subject’s own speech samples to generate speech stimuli for the perception task. For each categorical perception block, we calculated subject’s psychometric function and determined subject’s categorical boundary. The results showed that subjects’ perceptual boundary remained stable in all conditions and all blocks. Overall, our results did not provide evidence for the effects of speech production on speech perception.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Compensatory Responses During Unexpected Vowel Perturbations

Description

During speech, the brain is constantly processing and monitoring speech output through the auditory feedback loop to ensure correct and accurate speech. If the speech signal is experimentally altered/perturbed while

During speech, the brain is constantly processing and monitoring speech output through the auditory feedback loop to ensure correct and accurate speech. If the speech signal is experimentally altered/perturbed while speaking, the brain compensates for the perturbations by changing speech output in the opposite direction of the perturbations. In this study, we designed an experiment that examined the compensatory responses in response to unexpected vowel perturbations during speech. We applied two types of perturbations. In one condition, the vowel /ɛ/ was perturbed toward the vowel /æ/ by simultaneously shifting both the first formant (F1) and the second formant (F2) at 3 different levels (.5=small, 1=medium, and 1.5=large shifts). In another condition, the vowel /ɛ/ was perturbed by shifting F1 at 3 different levels (small, medium, and large shifts). Our results showed that there was a significant perturbation-type effect, with participants compensating more in response to perturbation that shifted /ɛ/ toward /æ/. In addition, we found that there was a significant level effect, with the compensatory responses to level .5 being significantly smaller than the compensatory responses to levels 1 and 1.5, regardless of the perturbation pathway. We also found that responses to shift level 1 and shift level 1.5 did not differ. Overall, our results highlighted the importance of the auditory feedback loop during speech production and how the brain is more sensitive to auditory errors that change a vowel category (e.g., /ɛ/ to /æ/).

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Date Created
  • 2019-05