Matching Items (9)

Analysis of Sexual Dimorphism in Sub-adult Crania

Description

Forensic anthropologists rely on the validated sex determination methods that utilize post-cranial elements in adult remains, but, recently, research has been conducted to determine adult remain sex using just the

Forensic anthropologists rely on the validated sex determination methods that utilize post-cranial elements in adult remains, but, recently, research has been conducted to determine adult remain sex using just the skull. Similar research for sub-adult remains is lacking the robustness and validation that adult determination methods possess. This study utilized 20 crania measurements taken from CT scans of child patients with known sexes at the Phoenix Children’s Hospital to investigate if a sex determination method could be produced. The measurements were assessed with a t-Test, Linear Discriminant Analysis, and Principle Component Analysis to determine if sexual dimorphism was detectable and if the predictive model had discriminant power when the sample size was categorized by age. The results revealed that a few measurements were dimorphic, but were not statistically significant to determine the sex of a sub-adult outside of the sample population. Future investigations will remove age group classification to observe if this model can predict age.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Crossing a zone of mutual oblivion: sustainability and childrearing in the Anthropocene

Description

Raising future generations is a culturally diverse, universally technological human project. This research brought the everyday work of raising children into the domain of sustainability scholarship, by first proposing a

Raising future generations is a culturally diverse, universally technological human project. This research brought the everyday work of raising children into the domain of sustainability scholarship, by first proposing a model of childrearing as a globally distributed socio-technical system, and then exploring the model with participants in two nodes – an elementary and middle school, and a children’s museum. In the process, the research objective shifted towards using methods that were less academic and more relevant to childrearing agents. The focus on participatory survey data was abandoned, in favor of autoethnographic documentation of a long-term engagement with a third node of the system, a child welfare setting. This approach yielded unexpected findings that fit the proposed model, identified characteristics of a Zone of Mutual Oblivion (ZMO) that exists between childrearing and sustainability, and clarified ways in which people prioritize their own needs and responsibilities, the developmental needs of children, the potential needs and capacities of future generations, and the functional integrity of ecological systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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A multi-method examination of mother-infant synchrony as a predictor of social and emotional problems

Description

The parent-child relationship is one of the earliest and most formative experiences for social and emotional development. Synchrony, defined as the rhythmic patterning and quality of mutual affect, engagement, and

The parent-child relationship is one of the earliest and most formative experiences for social and emotional development. Synchrony, defined as the rhythmic patterning and quality of mutual affect, engagement, and physiological attunement, has been identified as a critical quality of a healthy mother-infant relationship. Although the salience of the quality of family interaction has been well-established, clinical and developmental research has varied widely in methods for observing and identifying influential aspects of synchrony. In addition, modern dynamic perspectives presume multiple factors converge in a complex system influenced by both nature and nurture, in which individual traits, behavior, and environment are inextricably intertwined within the system of dyadic relational units.

The present study aimed to directly examine and compare synchrony from three distinct approaches: observed microanalytic behavioral sequences, observed global dyadic qualities, and physiological attunement between mothers and infants. The sample consisted of 323 Mexican American mothers and their infants followed from the third trimester of pregnancy through the first year of life. Mothers were interviewed prenatally, observed at a home visit at 12 weeks postpartum, and were finally interviewed for child social-emotional problems at child age 12 months. Specific aspects of synchrony (microanalytical, global, and physiological) were examined separately as well as together to identify comparable and divergent qualities within the construct.

Findings indicated that multiple perspectives on synchrony are best examined together, but as independent qualities to account for varying characteristics captured by divergent systems. Dyadic relationships characterized by higher reciprocity, more time and flexibility in mutual non-negative engagement, and less tendency to enter negative or unengaged states were associated with fewer child social-emotional problems at child age 12 months. Lower infant cortisol was associated with higher levels of externalizing problems, and smaller differences between mother and child cortisol were associated with higher levels of child dysregulation. Results underscore the complex but important nature of synchrony as a salient mechanism underlying the social-emotional growth of children. A mutually engaged, non-negative, and reciprocal environment lays the foundation for the successful social and self-regulatory competence of infants in the first year of life.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Adult survivors of childhood exposure to war (ASCEW): the forgotten and lost generations

Description

ABSTRACT

The purpose of involvement of Non-Governmental organizations (NGOs) in armed conflict resolution is to help to keep peace, protect innocent people, contribute to relief operations, to advocate, assist in the

ABSTRACT

The purpose of involvement of Non-Governmental organizations (NGOs) in armed conflict resolution is to help to keep peace, protect innocent people, contribute to relief operations, to advocate, assist in the reconstruction and development programs. This action is always carried out through the NGOs grassroots mediation processes. This study investigates the prospective of implementing humanitarian programs to help and care for the young war child survivors of the 1991 to 2001 civil wars in Sierra Leone.

To explore the intervention of the NGOs activities in the civil wars in Sierra Leone, I examined three NGOs and one governmental institution as case study organizations. The NGOs include 1) UNICEF, 2) World Vision, 3) Plan International and 4) the Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender, and Childrens’ Affair (MSWGCA) as government agency. The research investigates the NGOs and MSWGC’s specific services provided to children during and after the war in Sierra Leone. The specific services include: 1) the NGOs’ implementing policies, 2) who got served and under what conditions, 3) what models of services do they use, 4) what kind of government policies were put in place, 5) what were the challenges they faced, and 6) what were their strategies during and after the civil war in Sierra Leone. There were also ten Adult Survivors of Childhood Exposure to War (ASCEW) members interviewed to balance the NGOs’ claims. Based on my literature review and findings on ASCEW, I make my recommendations to allow the organizations to move forward with their humanitarian operations.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Negation and NegP developmental steps in bilingual Spanish/English children

Description

This study explores the development of negation and the Negation Phrase (NegP) in bilingual children learning both English and Spanish. I analyze the speech of four children growing up in

This study explores the development of negation and the Negation Phrase (NegP) in bilingual children learning both English and Spanish. I analyze the speech of four children growing up in the United States who are learning English and Spanish simultaneously in order to establish steps of parameter setting for negation. The transcripts have been taken from Pérez-Bazán’s bilingual corpus from CHILDES (Child Language Data Exchange System). The thorough analysis of the selected corpus data gathered from children ages 2;0 and 3;3 determines the steps children follow in order to develop mastery of negation and the NegP.

This study is an addition to the body of research surrounding language acquisition and the concept of Universal Grammar’s Principles and Parameters framework. The bases for this study is Klima & Bellugi’s (1968) established three steps for acquisition of negation by children in English, as well as Zeijlstra’s (2004) analysis of languages in regards to phases of the Jespersen cycle. The data of this study suggest that there are five basic steps to parameter setting, and that as utterances become syntactically more complex, children value uninterpretable features with interpretable ones. This is seen in both languages studied. The parameters categorized based on the data available for this study are the following: 1) negative particle outside of the VP, 2) NegP creation and development with preverbal negative marker, 3) Negative Concord (NC), 4) True Imperatives (banned or not), and 5) Negative Polarity Items (NPI).

Also important is the placement of the NegP, as it is above the TP in Spanish and c-commanded by the TP in English. The development of the NegP and uninterpretable negation [uNeg] valuation by interpretable negation [iNeg] is also explored in the utterances of the four children studied.

This study confirms Klima & Bellugi’s account of steps and further defines child negation in English as well as in Spanish. The focus on [iNeg] and [uNeg] features is further explained using Zeijlstra’s Phases of the Jespersen cycle as a springboard. I add salient information regarding parameter setting and how negation and the NegP are developed across two languages.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Children of incarcerated parents: the family characteristics associated with child welfare contact prior to parental incarceration

Description

Much of the current literature regarding the well being of children of incarcerated

parents has focused largely on the trauma that results from losing a parent to incarceration. Little research has

Much of the current literature regarding the well being of children of incarcerated

parents has focused largely on the trauma that results from losing a parent to incarceration. Little research has been dedicated to examining the pre-existing trauma and negative life experiences these children are exposed to prior to parental incarceration. Using cross-sectional data on children (N = 1,221) from a representative study of Arizona Department of Corrections inmates, the present study examines the relationships among children who have contact with Child Protective Services (CPS) prior to parental incarceration and: (1) parental substance abuse, (2) exposure to violence and (3) parental mental illness. Nearly a quarter of all children whose inmate parents were interviewed were contacted by CPS before experiencing parental incarceration. Children whose inmate parents reported being unemployed or less involved in the lives of their children and children who were reportedly exposed to violence were significantly more likely to have been contacted by CPS prior to experiencing parental incarceration as were younger children. The children of incarcerated mothers were more likely to have been contacted by CPS than were the children of incarcerated fathers. This effect remained even after controlling for additional parent, child and family risk factors for CPS contact such as prior history of incarceration and race.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The flavor station: a pilot salad bar trial to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in elementary school children

Description

Most American children consume less than the recommend amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V), 74% and 84%, respectively. Eating too few F&V in childhood is associated with increased risk of

Most American children consume less than the recommend amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V), 74% and 84%, respectively. Eating too few F&V in childhood is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, respiratory symptoms, and some cancers later in life. Adequate F&V consumption favorably impacts antioxidant status, gut flora, mood, and cognitive functioning. Nutrients such as vitamin C and fiber are only naturally occurring in plant foods. For many children, school lunches are an important source of F&V. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of providing condiments to increase children’s consumption of salad bar F&V in an elementary school cafeteria at lunchtime. The trial site was a single Title 1 elementary school in a large, urban district in the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Taste tests were conducted on three convenience samples of children in grades 3 – 7, aged 8 – 12 years (n=57) to identify the most popular condiment flavors. The five highest rated flavors were made available daily at a “flavor station” in the school’s lunchroom for three consecutive weeks during the Fall 2018 semester. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. A cost analysis was conducted for capital outlays related to the flavor station. School employee perceptions of F&V and the flavor station were assessed via posttest online surveys. Peanut butter was rated the best tasting condiment by children and was the only condiment that increased in popularity throughout the intervention. Overall, daily F&V consumption increased 17 g per child. There was a linear increase in F&V consumption during the study (r=0.986; P=0.014). As a proportion of the total F&V selected, F&V waste decreased by nearly 3%. The average daily cost of providing the flavor station was $0.09 per student. Sixty-five percent of school staff felt that the flavor station should continue at their school. Peanut butter is an affordable, nutrient-dense food that accommodates the USDA Food and Nutrition Service meal patterns and nutrition standards, and thus, is a viable strategy for increasing F&V consumption and decreasing F&V waste. The results herein inform the development of future interventions to improve the palatability of F&V for children.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Child labor in Iraq

Description

One in six children in the developing world is engaged in Child labor. Child labor is considered an issue that violates children's rights in many countries and Iraq is no

One in six children in the developing world is engaged in Child labor. Child labor is considered an issue that violates children's rights in many countries and Iraq is no exception. In 2004, Iraq had 1,300,000 children between the ages of eight and sixteen years engaged in work (UNICEF.com, 2004). This study identifies the major causes of child labor in Iraq and investigates the consequences of this issue. In this thesis I draw on the comparison of former regimes in Iraq and Egypt and how those regimes were mistreating their citizens by making them live under poverty and oppression while they were receiving support from the U.S. Poverty is the major cause behind Iraqi children engaging in work. I used the data I collected in Iraq, in the city of Nasiriyah, of 28 working children to explain the relationship between poverty, students drop out of school, family attitude towards education and the child engagement in work. At the end of the thesis I offer a list of recommendations to try to address the problem of child labor in Iraq. The recommendations and regulations are for Iraqi government and the NGOs to take into consideration in trying to resolve and regulate the issue of child labor to rescue the children in Iraq from more exploitation in the future.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Maternal psychological symptoms and emerging anxiety and depression in children: the mediating role of attention

Description

The nature and correlates of emerging internalizing symptoms in young children are largely unknown. Maternal factors such as psychological symptoms and detached parenting style have been found to be present

The nature and correlates of emerging internalizing symptoms in young children are largely unknown. Maternal factors such as psychological symptoms and detached parenting style have been found to be present in children with anxiety and depression. Further, child attentional control in task completion has been associated with difficulty related to internalizing problems. This study tested hypotheses that child anxiety and depression at age five could be predicted by a combination of maternal distress and maternal detached behavior recorded at age three. An additional hypothesis was tested to determine if child attentional control at age four may be a partial mediator of the relation between maternal symptoms and parenting to child internalizing symptoms. Using structural equation modeling, no hypotheses were supported; child internalizing problems were not significantly predicted by maternal distress nor detached parenting. Further, child attentional control was not predicted by maternal distress or detached behavior, nor did attentional control predict internalizing problems. Findings indicate that over a two-year interval, childhood internalizing problems at age five are likely best predicted by early internalizing problems at age three. There was no support that the mother or child factors tested were predictive of child outcomes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010