Matching Items (13)

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Utilization of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Detection of QSOX1 and CEA

Description

Improved pancreatic cancer diagnostic technology has the potential to improve patient prognosis by increasing cancer screening rates and encouraging early detection of the cancer. To increase the sensitivity and specificity

Improved pancreatic cancer diagnostic technology has the potential to improve patient prognosis by increasing cancer screening rates and encouraging early detection of the cancer. To increase the sensitivity and specificity while decreasing the cost and time investment, the emerging detection method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was tested to detect two pancreatic cancer specific biomarkers. The antibodies of carcinoembryonic antigen and quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 were immobilized individually to gold disk electrodes and tested for binding to their respective antigens. An AC signal of varying potential and a wide frequency sweep was applied to the electrode system and the resulting imaginary impedance values were analyzed. Based off of the highest slope and R-squared values of the collected impedance values, the optimal binding frequencies of QSOX1 and CEA with their antibodies was determined to be 97.66 Hz and 17.44 Hz, respectively. EIS was also used to test for potential multimarker detection by coimmobilizing anti-CEA and anti-QSOX1 to the surface of gold disk electrodes. Each system's impedance response was correlated to the physiological concentration range of CEA and QSOX1 individually. The resulting impedance and concentration calibration curves had R-squared values of 0.78 and 0.79 for the calculated QSOX1 and CEA, respectively. Both markers showed similar trends between the calculated and actual calibration curves for each marker. The imaginary impedance output lacks two independent peaks for the distinct optimal binding frequencies of both biomarkers after signal subtraction and show a large shift in optimal frequencies. From analyzing the co-immobilization data for the calculated and experimentally determined calibration curves of CEA and QSOX1, both curves had different correlation values between imaginary impedance values and concentration. Add and subtracting the experimental and calculated co-immobilization, QSOX1, and CEA signals suggest an oversaturation of QSOX1 used during the experiments.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Alternative Plate-based MSIA Protein Analysis Technique

Description

Biomarkers are the cornerstone of modern-day medicine. They are defined as any biological substance in or outside the body that gives insight to the body's condition. Doctors and researchers can

Biomarkers are the cornerstone of modern-day medicine. They are defined as any biological substance in or outside the body that gives insight to the body's condition. Doctors and researchers can measure specific biomarkers to diagnose and treat patients, such as the concentration of hemoglobin Alc and its connection to diabetes. There are a variety of methods, or assays, to detect biomarkers, but the most common assay is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A new-generation assay termed mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA) can measure proteoforms, the different chemical variations of proteins, and their relative abundance. ELISA on the other hand measures the overall concentration of protein in the sample. Measuring each of the proteoforms of a protein is important because only one or two variations could be biologically significant and/or cause diseases. However, running MSIA is expensive. For this reason, an alternative plate-based MSIA technique was tested for its ability to detect the proteoforms of a protein called apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III). This technique combines the protein capturing procedure of ELISA to isolate the protein with detection in a mass spectrometer. A larger amount of ApoC-III present in the body indicates a considerable risk for coronary heart disease. The precision of the assay is determined on the coefficient of variation (CV). A CV value is the ratio of standard deviation in relation to the mean, represented as a percentage. The smaller the percentage, the less variation the assay has, and therefore the more ability it has to detect subtle changes in the biomarker. An accepted CV would be less than 10% for single-day tests (intra-day) and less than 15% for multi-day tests (inter-day). The plate-based MSIA was started by first coating a 96-well round bottom plate with 2.5 micrograms of ApoC-III antibody. Next, a series of steps were conducted: a buffer wash, then the sample incubation, followed by another buffer wash and two consecutive water washes. After the final wash, the wells were filled with a MALDI matrix, then spotted onto a gold plate to dry. The dry gold target was then placed into a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer to produce mass spectra for each spot. The mass spectra were calibrated and the area underneath each of the four peaks representing the ApoC-III proteoforms was exported as an Excel file. The intra-day CV values were found by dividing the standard deviation by the average relative abundance of each peak. After repeating the same procedure for three more days, the inter-day CVs were found using the same method. After completing the experiment, the CV values were all within the acceptable guidelines. Therefore, the plate-based MSIA is a viable alternative for finding proteoforms than the more expensive MSIA tips. To further validate this, additional tests will need to be conducted with different proteins and number of samples to determine assay flexibility.

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  • 2017-12

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Human Papillomavirus specific immune responses as biomarkers for the early detection of cervical cancer

Description

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV 16, 18 or 45 species is associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV 16, 18 or 45 species is associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer. HPV genotyping and Pap smear tests are the regular methods used to detect pre-invasive cervical lesions, but there is a need for developing a rapid biomarker to profile immunity to these viruses. The viral E7 oncogene is expressed in most HPV-associated cancers and anti-E7 antibodies can be detected in the blood of patients with cervical cancer. This research was focused on viral E7 oncogene expression to be used in development of low-cost point of care tests, enabling patients from low resource settings to detect the asymptotic stage of cervical cancer and be able to seek treatment early. In order to produce the E7 protein in vitro to measure antibody levels, GST tagged E7 genes from HPV 16, 18 and 45 species were inserted into the pDEST15 vector and expressed in E. coli BL21DE3 cells that were induced with 1mM of IPTG. The E7-GST fused expressed protein was then purified using glutathione beads and resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein expression was 5.8 \u03bcg/ml for HPV 16E7 in 500 ml culture and for the 500 ml culture of HPV 18 E7 and 45 E7 were 10.5 \u03bcg/ml and 10.5 \u03bcg/ml for HPV 18E7 and 45E7 respectively. High yield values are showing high expression levels of GST-tagged E7 recombinant protein which can be used for serotyping a number of individuals. This shows that HPV E7 can be produced in large quantities that can potentially be used in point of care tests that can help identify women at risk of cervical cancer. In conclusion, the E7 protein produced in this study can potentially be used to induce humoral responses in patients\u2019 sera for understanding the immune response of cervical cancer.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Expression of 12 High and Low Risk HPV Type Proteomes for the Development of a Protein Microarray

Description

Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is seen in up to 90% of cases of cervical cancer, the third leading cancer cause of death in women. Current HPV screening focuses on

Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is seen in up to 90% of cases of cervical cancer, the third leading cancer cause of death in women. Current HPV screening focuses on only two HPV types and covers roughly 75% of HPV-associated cervical cancers. A protein based assay to test for antibody biomarkers against 98 HPV antigens from both high and low risk types could provide an inexpensive and reliable method to screen for patients at risk of developing invasive cervical cancer. Methods: 98 codon optimized, commercially produced HPV genes were cloned into the pANT7_cGST vector, amplified in a bacterial host, and purified for mammalian expression using in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) in a luminescence-based RAPID ELISA (RELISA) assay. Monoclonal antibodies were used to determine immune cross-reactivity between phylogenetically similar antigens. Lastly, several protein characteristics were examined to determine if they correlated with protein expression. Results: All genes were successfully moved into the destination vector and 86 of the 98 genes (88%) expressed protein at an adequate level. A difference was noted in expression by gene across HPV types but no correlation was found between protein size, pI, or aliphatic index and expression. Discussion: Further testing is needed to express the remaining 12 HPV genes. Once all genes have been successfully expressed and purified at high concentrations, DNA will be printed on microscope slides to create a protein microarray. This microarray will be used to screen HPV-positive patient sera for antibody biomarkers that may be indicative of cervical cancer and precancerous cervical neoplasias.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Detection of antibodies to HPV16-associated oropharyngeal cancer using custom bead arrays

Description

Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is the world's sixth most common cancer and in many cases is associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. Antibodies (Abs) to HPV16 viral antigens

Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is the world's sixth most common cancer and in many cases is associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. Antibodies (Abs) to HPV16 viral antigens are potential diagnostic biomarkers of HPV-associated OPC (HPV OPC). A custom multiplexed bead array assay was used to detect Abs to HPV16 antigens E1, CE2, NE2, E4, E5, E6, E7, L1, and L2. Following extensive optimization of the assay, these genes were expressed as GST-fusion proteins and captured onto anti-GST magnetic beads. Serum was obtained from 256 OPC patients at the time of diagnosis and from 78 healthy controls. The median fluorescent intensity (MFI) was determined for each antigen and ratios of MFI to control GST-fusion protein were determined for each serum sample. Cutoff values were set as the mean + 3 SD of the MFIs of healthy controls and p-values were calculated using Wilcoxon unpaired and Fisher's exact test. Results of this experiment showed that HPV16 E1, CE2, NE2, E4, E6, and E7 Ab levels were elevated in OPC patients compared to controls (p<0.001), as were Ab levels to L1 (p = 0.013) and L2 (p = 0.023), per Fischer's exact test. Abs to CE2, NE2, E6, and E7 were identified as a potential biomarker panel for early detection of HPV OPC. For the 111 patients with known HPV+ tumors as measured by tumor PCR of E6 and/or E7, this assay had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 87% (AUC = 0.96). From these results, we conclude that custom bead array assays can be used to detect HPV16 Abs in patient sera, and we have identified a 4-Ab biomarker panel for the early detection of HPV OPC.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Ultra High Density Single Cell Metabolic Measurements

Description

In vitro measurements of cellular respiration have proven to be key biomarkers for the early onset of tumor formation in certain pathological mechanisms.1 The examination of isolated single cells has

In vitro measurements of cellular respiration have proven to be key biomarkers for the early onset of tumor formation in certain pathological mechanisms.1 The examination of isolated single cells has shown promise in predicting the onset of cancerous growth much earlier than current methods allow.2 Specifically, measurements of the oxygen consumption rates of precancerous cells have elucidated outliers which predict the early onset of esophageal cancer.2 Single cell profiling can fit in to current pathology studies and can serve as a step along the way, much like PCR or gel assays, in detecting biomarkers earlier than current clinical methods.3 Measurement of these single cell metabolic rates is currently limited to 25 cells per experiment. It is the aim of this project to increase throughput from 25 cells to 225 cells per experiment via the implementation of new hardware and software which fit with current methods to allow the same experimental structure. Successful implementation of such methods will allow for more rapid and efficient data collection, facilitating quantitative results and nine times the yield from the same experimental manpower and funding. This document focuses on the implementation ultra high density (UHD) hardware consisting of a pneumatic molar design, angular adjustment features and a mechanical Z-stage. These components have produced the most encouraging results thus far and are the key changes in transitioning to higher throughput experiments.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

Development of Electrical Instrumentation for Multiplexed Diabetes Management

Description

This report outlines the current methods and instrumentation used for diabetes monitoring and detection, and evaluates the problems that these methods face. Additionally, it will present an approach to remedy

This report outlines the current methods and instrumentation used for diabetes monitoring and detection, and evaluates the problems that these methods face. Additionally, it will present an approach to remedy these problems. The purpose of this project is to create a potentiostat that is capable of controlling a diabetes meter that monitors multiple biological markers simultaneously. Glucose is the most commonly measured biomarker for diabetes. However, it provides only a limited amount of information. In order to give the user of the meter more information about the progression of his or her disease, the concentrations of several different biological markers for diabetes may be measured using a system that operates in a similar fashion to blood glucose meters. The potentiostat provides an input voltage into the electrode sensor and receives the current from the sensor as the output. From this information, the impedance may be calculated. The concentrations of each of the biomarkers in the blood sample can then be determined. In an effort to increase sensitivity, the diabetes meter forgoes the use of amperometric i-t in favor of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. A three-electrode electrochemical sensor is used with the meter. In order to perform simultaneous and rapid testing of biomarker concentration, a single multisine input wave is generated using a hardware implementation of a summing amplifier and waveform generators.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Identification of Tumor Associated Antigens using Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

Identifying disease biomarkers may aid in the early detection of breast cancer and improve patient outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that tumors are immunogenic and therefore patients may launch an autoantibody

Identifying disease biomarkers may aid in the early detection of breast cancer and improve patient outcomes. Recent evidence suggests that tumors are immunogenic and therefore patients may launch an autoantibody response to tumor associated antigens. Single-chain variable fragments of autoantibodies derived from regional lymph node B cells of breast cancer patients were used to discover these tumor associated biomarkers on protein microarrays. Six candidate biomarkers were discovered from 22 heavy chain-only variable region antibody fragments screened. Validation tests are necessary to confirm the tumorgenicity of these antigens. However, the use of single-chain variable autoantibody fragments presents a novel platform for diagnostics and cancer therapeutics.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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INVESTIGATING ECCRINE SWEAT AS A NONINVASIVE BIOMARKER RESOURCE

Description

Background: Recent interests in continuous biomonitoring and the surge of wearable biotechnology demand a better understanding of sweat as a noninvasive biomarker resource. The ability to use sweat as a

Background: Recent interests in continuous biomonitoring and the surge of wearable biotechnology demand a better understanding of sweat as a noninvasive biomarker resource. The ability to use sweat as a biofluid provides the opportunity for noninvasive early and continuous diagnostics. This thesis serves to help fill the existing knowledge gap in sweat biomarker discovery and applications.

Experimental Design: In part one of this study, exercise-induced eccrine sweat was collected from 50 healthy individuals and analyzed using mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, and quantitative ELISAs to identify a broad range of proteins, antibody isotypes, and cytokines in sweat. In part two of this study, cortisol and melatonin levels were analyzed in exercise-induced sweat and plasma samples collected from 22 individuals.

Results: 220 unique proteins were identified by shotgun analysis in pooled sweat samples. Detectable antibody isotypes include IgA (100% positive; median 1230 ± 28 700 pg/mL), IgD (18%; 22.0 ± 119 pg/mL), IgG1 (96%;1640 ± 6750 pg/mL), IgG2 (37%; 292 ± 6810 pg/mL), IgG3 (71%;74.0 ± 119 pg/mL), IgG4 (69%; 43.0 ± 42.0 pg/mL), and IgM (41%;69.0 ± 1630 pg/mL). Of 42 cytokines, three were readily detected in all sweat samples (p<0.01). The median concentration for interleukin-1α was 352 ± 521 pg/mL, epidermal growth factor was 86.5 ± 147 pg/mL, and angiogenin was 38.3 ± 96.3 pg/mL. Multiple other cytokines were detected at lower levels. The median and standard deviation of cortisol was determined to be 4.17 ± 11.1 ng/mL in sweat and 76.4 ± 28.8 ng/mL in plasma. The correlation between sweat and plasma cortisol levels had an R-squared value of 0.0802 (excluding the 2 highest sweat cortisol levels). The median and standard deviation of melatonin was determined to be 73.1 ± 198 pg/mL in sweat and 194 ± 93.4 pg/mL in plasma. Similar to cortisol, the correlation between sweat and plasma melatonin had an R-squared value of 0.117.

Conclusion: These studies suggest that sweat holds more proteomic and hormonal biomarkers than previously thought and may eventually serve as a noninvasive biomarker resource. These studies also highlight many of the challenges associated with monitoring sweat content including differences between collection devices and hydration, evaporation losses, and sweat rate.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Targeted proteomics studies: design, development and translation of mass spectrometric immunoassays for diabetes and kidney disease

Description

In an effort to begin validating the large number of discovered candidate biomarkers, proteomics is beginning to shift from shotgun proteomic experiments towards targeted proteomic approaches that provide solutions to

In an effort to begin validating the large number of discovered candidate biomarkers, proteomics is beginning to shift from shotgun proteomic experiments towards targeted proteomic approaches that provide solutions to automation and economic concerns. Such approaches to validate biomarkers necessitate the mass spectrometric analysis of hundreds to thousands of human samples. As this takes place, a serendipitous opportunity has become evident. By the virtue that as one narrows the focus towards "single" protein targets (instead of entire proteomes) using pan-antibody-based enrichment techniques, a discovery science has emerged, so to speak. This is due to the largely unknown context in which "single" proteins exist in blood (i.e. polymorphisms, transcript variants, and posttranslational modifications) and hence, targeted proteomics has applications for established biomarkers. Furthermore, besides protein heterogeneity accounting for interferences with conventional immunometric platforms, it is becoming evident that this formerly hidden dimension of structural information also contains rich-pathobiological information. Consequently, targeted proteomics studies that aim to ascertain a protein's genuine presentation within disease- stratified populations and serve as a stepping-stone within a biomarker translational pipeline are of clinical interest. Roughly 128 million Americans are pre-diabetic, diabetic, and/or have kidney disease and public and private spending for treating these diseases is in the hundreds of billions of dollars. In an effort to create new solutions for the early detection and management of these conditions, described herein is the design, development, and translation of mass spectrometric immunoassays targeted towards diabetes and kidney disease. Population proteomics experiments were performed for the following clinically relevant proteins: insulin, C-peptide, RANTES, and parathyroid hormone. At least thirty-eight protein isoforms were detected. Besides the numerous disease correlations confronted within the disease-stratified cohorts, certain isoforms also appeared to be causally related to the underlying pathophysiology and/or have therapeutic implications. Technical advancements include multiplexed isoform quantification as well a "dual- extraction" methodology for eliminating non-specific proteins while simultaneously validating isoforms. Industrial efforts towards widespread clinical adoption are also described. Consequently, this work lays a foundation for the translation of mass spectrometric immunoassays into the clinical arena and simultaneously presents the most recent advancements concerning the mass spectrometric immunoassay approach.

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Date Created
  • 2011