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Apologia in German and Japanese Post-War Film: A Comparative Analysis of Exculpatory Discourses on the German and Japanese Military in World War II.

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In the sixty-seven years following the end of World War II, West Germany and Japan underwent a remarkable series of economic and social changes that irrevocably altered their respective ways of life. Formerly xenophobic, militaristic and highly socially stratified societies,

In the sixty-seven years following the end of World War II, West Germany and Japan underwent a remarkable series of economic and social changes that irrevocably altered their respective ways of life. Formerly xenophobic, militaristic and highly socially stratified societies, both emerged from the 20th Century as liberal, prosperous and free. Both made great strides well beyond the expectations of their occupiers, and rebounded from the overwhelming destruction of their national economies within a few short decades. While these changes have yielded dramatic results, the wartime period still looms large in their respective collective memories. Therefore, an ongoing and diverse dialectical process would engage the considerable popular, official, and intellectual energy of their post-war generations. In West Germany, the term Vergangenheitsbewältigung (VGB) emerged to describe a process of coming to terms with the past, while the Japanese chose kako no kokufuku to describe their similar historical sojourns. Although intellectuals of widely varying backgrounds in both nations made great strides toward making Japanese and German citizens cognizant of the roles that their militaries played in gruesome atrocities, popular cinematic productions served to reiterate older, discredited assertions of the fundamental honor and innocence of the average soldier, thereby nurturing a historically revisionist line of reasoning that continues to compete for public attention. All forms of media would play an important role in sustaining this “apologetic narrative,” and cinema, among the most popular and visible of these mediums, was not excluded from this. Indeed, films would play a unique recurring role, like rhetorical time capsules, in offering a sanitized historical image of Japanese and German soldiers that continues to endure in modern times. Nevertheless, even as West Germany and Japan regained their sovereignty and re-examined their pasts with ever greater resolution and insight, their respective film industries continued to “reset” the clock, and accentuated the visibility and relevancy of apologetic forces still in existence within both societies. However, it is important to note that, when speaking of “Germans” and “Japanese,” that they are not meant to be thought of as being uniformly of one mind or another. Rather, the use of these words is meant as convenient shorthand to refer to the dominant forces in Japanese and German civil society at any given time over the course of their respective post- war histories. Furthermore, references to “Germany” during the Cold War period are to be understood to mean the Federal Republic of Germany, rather than their socialist counterpart, the German Democratic Republic, a nation that undertook its own coming to terms with the past in an entirely distinct fashion.

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2012-12

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Modeling Brain Tumors: Simulating individual Patient Cases of Glioblastoma Multiforme

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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs) is the most prevalent brain tumor type and causes approximately 40% of all non-metastic primary tumors in adult patients [1]. GBMs are malignant, grade-4 brain tumors, the most aggressive classication as established by the World Health Organization

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBMs) is the most prevalent brain tumor type and causes approximately 40% of all non-metastic primary tumors in adult patients [1]. GBMs are malignant, grade-4 brain tumors, the most aggressive classication as established by the World Health Organization and are marked by their low survival rate; the median survival time is only twelve months from initial diagnosis: Patients who live more than three years are considered long-term survivors [2]. GBMs are highly invasive and their diffusive growth pattern makes it impossible to remove the tumors by surgery alone [3]. The purpose of this paper is to use individual patient data to parameterize a model of GBMs that allows for data on tumor growth and development to be captured on a clinically relevant time scale. Such an endeavor is the rst step to a clinically applicable predictions of GBMs. Previous research has yielded models that adequately represent the development of GBMs, but they have not attempted to follow specic patient cases through the entire tumor process. Using the model utilized by Kostelich et al. [4], I will attempt to redress this deciency. In doing so, I will improve upon a family of models that can be used to approximate the time of development and/or structure evolution in GBMs. The eventual goal is to incorporate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data into a parameterized model of GBMs in such a way that it can be used clinically to predict tumor growth and behavior. Furthermore, I hope to come to a denitive conclusion as to the accuracy of the Koteslich et al. model throughout the development of GBMs tumors.

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2012-12

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Can Akt3 Decrease Tumorigenicity in Glioblastoma Multiforme Through a Cell Cycle Mechanism?

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Glioblastoma multiforme is associated with a very low survival rate and is recognized as the most vicious form of intracranial cancer. The Akt gene pathway has three different isoforms, each of which has a different role in the tumors of

Glioblastoma multiforme is associated with a very low survival rate and is recognized as the most vicious form of intracranial cancer. The Akt gene pathway has three different isoforms, each of which has a different role in the tumors of GBM. Preliminary data suggests that Akt3 may work to decrease tumorigenicity. A produced image that visualizes the subcellular localization of Akt3 led the author to believe that Akt3 may reduce tumorigenicity by decreasing genomic instability caused by the cancer. To explore this, flow cytometry was performed on GBM cell lines with Akt3v1 over-expression, Akt3v2 over-expression, and a control glioma cell line.

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2012-12