Matching Items (11)

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Correlating Galactic Magnetic Fields with Regions of Dense Star Formation using LOFAR and CALIFA

Description

I test the hypothesis that galactic magnetic fields originate from regions of dense
star formation (Dahlem et al. 2006) by comparing maps of 120-240 MHz synchrotron emission and hydrogen alpha

I test the hypothesis that galactic magnetic fields originate from regions of dense
star formation (Dahlem et al. 2006) by comparing maps of 120-240 MHz synchrotron emission and hydrogen alpha (Hα) emission of the tidally-interacting, edge-on, barred spiral galaxy UGC 9665. Synchrotron emission traces magnetic field strength to a rough first order, while Hα emission traces recent massive star formation. UGC 9665 was selected because it was included in the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) TwoMetre Sky Survey (LoTSS; Shimwell et al. (2017)) as well as the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA; Sanchez et al. (2012)). I generated vertical intensity profiles at several distances along the disk from the galactic center for synchrotron emission and Hα in order to measure how the intensity of each falls off with distance from the midplane. In addition to correlating the vertical profiles to see if there is a relationship between star formation and magnetic field strength, I fit the LOFAR vertical profiles to characteristic Gaussian and exponential functions given by Dumke et al. (1995). Fitting these equations have been shown to be good indicators of the main mode of cosmic ray transport, whether it is advection (exponential fit) or diffusion (Gaussian fit) (Heesen et al. 2016). Cosmic rays originate from supernova,
and core collapse supernovae occur in star forming regions, which also produce
advective winds, so I test the correlation between star-forming regions and advective regions as predicted by the Heesen et al. (2016) method. Similar studies should be conducted on different galaxies in the future in order to further test these hypotheses and how well LOFAR and CALIFA complement each other, which will be made possible by the full release of the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) (Shimwell et al. 2017).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Observing simulated images of the high redshift universe: the faint end luminosity function

Description

Numerical simulations are very helpful in understanding the physics of the formation of structure and galaxies. However, it is sometimes difficult to interpret model data with respect to observations, partly

Numerical simulations are very helpful in understanding the physics of the formation of structure and galaxies. However, it is sometimes difficult to interpret model data with respect to observations, partly due to the difficulties and background noise inherent to observation. The goal, here, is to attempt to bridge this gap between simulation and observation by rendering the model output in image format which is then processed by tools commonly used in observational astronomy. Images are synthesized in various filters by folding the output of cosmological simulations of gasdynamics with star-formation and dark matter with the Bruzual- Charlot stellar population synthesis models. A variation of the Virgo-Gadget numerical simulation code is used with the hybrid gas and stellar formation models of Springel and Hernquist (2003). Outputs taken at various redshifts are stacked to create a synthetic view of the simulated star clusters. Source Extractor (SExtractor) is used to find groupings of stellar populations which are considered as galaxies or galaxy building blocks and photometry used to estimate the rest frame luminosities and distribution functions. With further refinements, this is expected to provide support for missions such as JWST, as well as to probe what additional physics are needed to model the data. The results show good agreement in many respects with observed properties of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) over a wide range of high redshifts. In particular, the slope (alpha) when fitted to the standard Schechter function shows excellent agreement both in value and evolution with redshift, when compared with observation. Discrepancies of other properties with observation are seen to be a result of limitations of the simulation and additional feedback mechanisms which are needed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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H-alpha emitting galaxies at z ~0.6 in the deep and wide narrowband survey

Description

New measurements of the Hα luminosity function (LF) and star formation rate

(SFR) volume density are presented for galaxies at z∼0.62 in the COSMOS field.

These results are part of the Dee

New measurements of the Hα luminosity function (LF) and star formation rate

(SFR) volume density are presented for galaxies at z∼0.62 in the COSMOS field.

These results are part of the Deep And Wide Narrowband Survey (DAWN), a unique

infrared imaging program with large areal coverage (∼1.1 deg 2 over 5 fields) and

sensitivity (9.9 × 10 −18 erg/cm 2 /s at 5σ).

The present sample, based on a single DAWN field, contains 116 Hα emission-

line candidates at z∼0.62, 25% of which have spectroscopic confirmations. These

candidates have been selected through comparison of narrow and broad-band images

in the infrared and through matching with existing catalogs in the COSMOS field.

The dust-corrected LF is well described by a Schechter function with L* = 10 42.64±0.92

erg s −1 , Φ* = 10 −3.32±0.93 Mpc −3 (L* Φ* = 10 39.40±0.15 ), and α = −1.75 ± 0.09. From

this LF, a SFR density of ρ SF R =10 −1.37±0.08 M○ yr −1 Mpc −3 was calculated. An

additional cosmic variance uncertainty of ∼ 20% is also expected. Both the faint

end slope and luminosity density that are derived are consistent with prior results at

similar redshifts, with reduced uncertainties.

An analysis of these Hα emitters’ sizes is also presented, showing a direct corre-

lation between the galaxies’ sizes and their Hα emission.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Galaxy evolution with hybrid methods

Description

I combine, compare, and contrast the results from two different numerical techniques (grid vs. particle methods) studying multi-scale processes in galaxy and structure formation. I produce a method for recreating

I combine, compare, and contrast the results from two different numerical techniques (grid vs. particle methods) studying multi-scale processes in galaxy and structure formation. I produce a method for recreating identical initial conditions for one method from those of the other, and explore methodologies necessary for making these two methods as consistent as possible. With this, I first study the impact of streaming velocities of baryons with respect to dark matter, present at the epoch of reionization, on the ability for small halos to accrete gas at high redshift. With the inclusion of this stream velocity, I find the central density profile of halos is reduced, overall gas condensation is delayed, and infer a delay in the inevitable creation of stars.

I then combine the two numerical methods to study starburst outflows as they interact with satellite halos. This process leads to shocks catalyzing the formation of molecular coolants that lead to bursts in star formation, a process that is better captured in grid methods. The resultant clumps of stars are removed from their initial dark matter halo, resemble precursors to modern-day globular clusters, and their formation may be observable with upcoming telescopes.

Finally, I perform two simulation suites, comparing each numerical method's ability to model the impact of energetic feedback from accreting black holes at the core of giant clusters. With these comparisons I show that black hole feedback can maintain a hot diffuse medium while limiting the amount of gas that can condense into the interstellar medium, reducing the central star formation by up to an order of magnitude.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Investigating Galaxy Evolution and Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

Description

Galaxy formation is a complex process with aspects that are still very uncertain or unknown. A mechanism that has been utilized in simulations to successfully resolve several of these outstanding

Galaxy formation is a complex process with aspects that are still very uncertain or unknown. A mechanism that has been utilized in simulations to successfully resolve several of these outstanding issues is active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. Recent work has shown that a promising method for directly measuring this energy is by looking at small increases in the energy of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons as they pass through ionized gas, known as the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (tSZ) effect.

In this work, I present stacked CMB measurements of a large number of elliptical galaxies never before measured using this method. I split the galaxies into two redshift groups, "low-z" for z=0.5-1.0 and “high-z” for z=1.0-1.5. I make two independent sets of CMB measurements using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), respectively, and I use data from the Planck telescope to account for contamination from dust emission. With SPT I find average thermal energies of 7.6(+3.0/−2.3) × 10^60 erg for 937 low-z galaxies, and 6.0(+7.7/−6.3) × 10^60 erg for 240 high-z galaxies. With ACT I find average thermal energies of 5.6(+5.9/−5.6) × 10^60 erg for 227 low-z galaxies, and 7.0(+4.7/−4.4) × 10^60 erg for 529 high-z galaxies.

I then attempt to further interpret the physical meaning of my observational results by incorporating two large-scale cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, one with (Horizon-AGN) and one without (Horizon-NoAGN) AGN feedback. I extract simulated tSZ measurements around a population of galaxies equivalent to those used in my observational work, with matching mass distributions, and compare the results. I find that the SPT measurements are consistent with Horizon-AGN, falling within 0.4σ at low-z and 0.5σ at high-z, while the ACT measurements are very different from Horizon-AGN, off by 6.9σ at low-z and 14.6σ at high-z. Additionally, the SPT measurements are loosely inconsistent with Horizon-NoAGN, off by 1.8σ at low-z but within 0.6σ at high-z, while the ACT measurements are loosely consistent with Horizon-NoAGN (at least much more so than with Horizon-AGN), falling within 0.8σ at low-z but off by 1.9σ at high-z.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Following the cosmic evolution of the pristine gas: Pop III star formation and the first galaxies

Description

The formation of the firsts stars some 100-300 Myr after the Big Bang marked the end of the cosmic darks ages and created the elemental building blocks of not only

The formation of the firsts stars some 100-300 Myr after the Big Bang marked the end of the cosmic darks ages and created the elemental building blocks of not only rocky planets but eventually us. Understanding their formation, lifetimes, and contributions to the evolution of our universe is one of the current frontiers in astronomy and astrophysics.

In this work I present an improved model for following the formation of Pop III stars, their effects on early galaxy evolution, and how we might search for them. I make use of a new subgrid model of turbulent mixing to accurately follow the time scales required to mix supernova (SN) ejecta -- enriched with heavy elements -- into the pristine gas. I implement this model within a large-scale cosmological simulation and follow the fraction of gas with metallicity below a critical value marking the boundary between Pop III and metal enriched Population II (Pop II) star formation. I demonstrate that accounting for subgrid mixing results in a Pop III stars formation rate that is 2-3 times higher than standard models with the same physical resolution.

I also implement and track a new "Primordial metals" (PM) scalar that tracks the metals generated by Pop III SNe. These metals are taken up by second generation stars and likely result in a subclass of carbon-enhanced, metal-poor (CEMP) stars. By tracking both regular metals and PM, I can model, in post-processing, the elemental abundances of simulation stars. I find good agreement between observations of CEMP-no Milky Way halo stars and second generation stars within the simulation when assuming the first stars had a typical mass of 60 M☉, providing clues as to the Pop III initial mass function.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Markov chain Monte Carlo modeling of high-redshift quasar host galaxies in Hubble Space Telescope imaging

Description

Quasars, the visible phenomena associated with the active accretion phase of super- massive black holes found in the centers of galaxies, represent one of the most energetic processes in the

Quasars, the visible phenomena associated with the active accretion phase of super- massive black holes found in the centers of galaxies, represent one of the most energetic processes in the Universe. As matter falls into the central black hole, it is accelerated and collisionally heated, and the radiation emitted can outshine the combined light of all the stars in the host galaxy. Studies of quasar host galaxies at ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths are fundamentally limited by the precision with which the light from the central quasar accretion can be disentangled from the light of stars in the surrounding host galaxy. In this Dissertation, I discuss direct imaging of quasar host galaxies at redshifts z ≃ 2 and z ≃ 6 using new data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. I describe a new method for removing the point source flux using Markov Chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation and simultaneous modeling of the point source and host galaxy. I then discuss applications of this method to understanding the physical properties of high-redshift quasar host galaxies including their structures, luminosities, sizes, and colors, and inferred stellar population properties such as age, mass, and dust content.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The resolved stellar populations in nearby star-forming galaxies: M83, NGC 4214, and CGCG 269-049

Description

Understanding the properties and formation histories of individual stars in galaxies remains one of the most important areas in astrophysics. The impact of the Hubble Space Telescope<\italic> (HST<\italic>) has been

Understanding the properties and formation histories of individual stars in galaxies remains one of the most important areas in astrophysics. The impact of the Hubble Space Telescope<\italic> (HST<\italic>) has been revolutionary, providing deep observations of nearby galaxies at high resolution and unprecedented sensitivity over a wavelength range from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared. In this study, I use deep HST<\italic> imaging observations of three nearby star-forming galaxies (M83, NGC 4214, and CGCG 269-049) based on the HST<\italic> observations, in order to provide to construct color-magnitude and color-color diagrams of their resolved stellar populations. First, I select 50 regions in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83, and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. I developed an innovative method of star-by-star correction for internal extinction to improve stellar age and mass estimates. I compare the extinction-corrected ages of the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods. The young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with a scenario where star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters before dispersing on short timescales to form the field population. I address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected. The same procedure is applied to nearby starbursting dwarf NGC 4214 to study the distributions of young and old stellar populations. Lastly, I describe the analysis of the HST<\italic> and Spitzer Space Telescope<\italic> observations of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy (XMPG) CGCG 269-049 at a distance of 4.96 Mpc. This galaxy is one of the most metal-poor known with 12+log(O/H)=7.43. I find clear evidence for the presence of an old stellar population in CGCG~269-049, ruling out the possibility that this galaxy is forming its first generation of stars, as originally proposed for XMPGs. This comprehensive study of resolved stellar populations in three nearby galaxies provides detailed view of the current state of star formation and evolution of galaxies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Formation of compact stellar clusters by high-redshift galaxy outflows

Description

Using high-resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations I study the interaction between primordial minihalo, a clump of baryonic and dark matter with a virial temperature below the atomic cooling limit,

Using high-resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations I study the interaction between primordial minihalo, a clump of baryonic and dark matter with a virial temperature below the atomic cooling limit, and a galaxy outflow. In Chapter 2 I concentrate on the formation of molecular coolants and their effect on the evolution of the minihalo gas. Molecular coolants are important since they allow gas to cool below 10000 K. Therefore, I implement a primordial chemistry and cooling network that tracks the evolution and cooling from these species. I show that the shock from the galaxy outflow produces an abundance of coolants in the primordial gas which allows the gas to cool to below 10000 K. I also show that this interaction produces compact stellar clusters that are ejected from their parent dark matter halos. In Chapter 3 I look at the turbulent mixing of metals that occur between the minihalo and outflow. To do this, I develop a sub-grid model for turbulence that reproduces three primary fluid instabilities. I find that the metals from the outflow are well mixed throughout the minihalo gas. In addition, the metal abundance found roughly corresponds to the observed abundances in halo globular clusters. In Chapter 4, I conduct a suite of simulations that follow this interaction over a wide range of parameters. In almost all cases, the shocked minihalos form molecules and cool rapidly to become compact, chemically homogenous stellar clusters. Furthermore, I show that the unique properties of these clusters make them a prime observational target for study with the next generation of telescopes. Given the unique properties of these clusters there are reasons to suspect that their low-redshift counterparts are halo globular clusters. I outline this comparison in Chapter 5 and give my conclusions in Chapter 6. Finally, I summarize my current work in Chapter 7 and future extensions in Chapter 8. By the end, I hope to convince you that the interaction between a galaxy outflow and a primordial minihalo provides a formation pathway for present day halo globular clusters.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Tidal tales of minor mergers: star formation in the tidal tails of minor mergers

Description

This work examines star formation in the debris associated with collisions of dwarf and spiral galaxies. While the spectacular displays of major mergers are famous (e.g., NGC 4038/9, ``The Antennae''),

This work examines star formation in the debris associated with collisions of dwarf and spiral galaxies. While the spectacular displays of major mergers are famous (e.g., NGC 4038/9, ``The Antennae''), equal mass galaxy mergers are relatively rare compared to minor mergers (mass ratio <0.3) Minor mergers are less energetic than major mergers, but more common in the observable universe and, thus, likely played a pivotal role in the formation of most large galaxies. Centers of mergers host vigorous star formation from high gas density and turbulence and are surveyed over cosmological distances. However, the tidal debris resulting from these mergers have not been well studied. Such regions have large reservoirs of gaseous material that can be used as fuel for subsequent star formation but also have lower gas density. Tracers of star formation at the local and global scale have been examined for three tidal tails in two minor merger systems. These tracers include young star cluster populations, H-alpha, and [CII] emission. The rate of apparent star formation derived from these tracers is compared to the gas available to estimate the star formation efficiency (SFE). The Western tail of NGC 2782 formed isolated star clusters while massive star cluster complexes are found in the UGC 10214 (``The Tadpole'') and Eastern tail of NGC 2782. Due to the lack of both observable CO and [CII] emission, the observed star formation in the Western tail of NGC 2782 may have a low carbon abundance and represent only the first round of local star formation. While the Western tail has a normal SFE, the Eastern tail in the same galaxy has an low observed SFE. In contrast, the Tadpole tidal tail has a high observed star formation rate and a corresponding high SFE. The low SFE observed in the Eastern tail of NGC 2782 may be due to its origin as a splash region where localized gas heating is important. However, the other tails may be tidally formed regions where gravitational compression likely dominates and enhances the local star formation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013