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International Refugees in London, England: Post-2016 European Union Referendum

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International refugees have continuously shaped the identity of modern London, England, creating a diverse cityscape. However, the referendum in June 2016 indicated a perceived desire of the majority of United Kingdom (UK) citizens to leave the European Union (EU) and

International refugees have continuously shaped the identity of modern London, England, creating a diverse cityscape. However, the referendum in June 2016 indicated a perceived desire of the majority of United Kingdom (UK) citizens to leave the European Union (EU) and the domination of far-right, anti-immigrant rhetoric in British politics. These elements have given rise to the question of how refugees will find belonging in a geographical space that continues to create borders at both a national and borough level. As the Brexit vote still stands, barriers to applying for refugee status and successful resettlement could increase - complicating the lives of refugees wanting to resettle in the UK. Urban spaces such as London, Manchester, and Birmingham have transformed into places where the lives of the British cross daily with the lives of those forcibly removed from their home state. With minimal current research on the relationship between international refugees in London and the current social and political identity of the city, post-Brexit vote, I believe there is a gap in understanding to be filled. This gap includes defining the relationship between place, people, and politics in the context of the city of London as well as the boroughs that comprise the city. In addition, this research explores the future of London as a place at a borough-level and aims to understand how the idea of borders and nationalism have been uncovered and subsequently amplified through the referendum. The following paper includes data collected from British refugee agencies and inhabitants of five London boroughs that will add to existing research in the form of academic and professional journals and published reports produced by refugee agencies and the British government in hopes to identify the current nature of the relationship between international refugees and Londoners and how this relationship might shift in the future.

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2019-05

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Rights and Responsibility in the Sex Industry A 20-Year Study on Decriminalization and Legalization in Sweden and the Netherlands

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It is extraordinarily well-documented that death, physical assault, rape, and psychological trauma are common to those working in the sex industry. This is true around the world, despite the varying laws of different countries. 20 years ago, two opposing policies

It is extraordinarily well-documented that death, physical assault, rape, and psychological trauma are common to those working in the sex industry. This is true around the world, despite the varying laws of different countries. 20 years ago, two opposing policies were introduced in an attempt to end abuse and provide support to those in the industry: the Nordic Model of partial decriminalization, and legalization with regulation. Both models were created with the intention to decrease abuse of the vast number of primarily women and girls in the industry and increase their freedom and protection, as they are some of the most vulnerable and marginalized of society. However, these models approach the issue from conflicting views on the nature of the industry itself and use criminal justice approaches without connecting rights, resulting in unreliable means of protecting the rights of those in the sex industry. This paper utilizes a rights-based framework grounded in criminal race theory (CRT) and feminist rights-based literature in conversation with the reality of working within criminal justice systems to understand how fundamental understandings of the sex industry influence policy making, what the presence or absence of government involvement does to the protection and freedom of sex workers, and what kind of government involvement helps or hinders sex worker’s rights. This will be seen in a case comparison of how both policies have succeeded and failed to provide basic human rights to those in the sex industry in the Nordic Model of partial decriminalization in Stockholm, Sweden, and the legalization model of Amsterdam in the Netherlands.

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2021