Matching Items (9)

133888-Thumbnail Image.png

Review of Autism Treatment Research

Description

As the prevalence and awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increases, so does the variety of treatment options for primary symptoms (social interaction, communication, behavior) and secondary symptoms (anxiety, hyperactivity, GI problems, and insomnia). Various treatments, from Adderall to Citalopram

As the prevalence and awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increases, so does the variety of treatment options for primary symptoms (social interaction, communication, behavior) and secondary symptoms (anxiety, hyperactivity, GI problems, and insomnia). Various treatments, from Adderall to Citalopram to Flax Seed Oil promise relief for these symptoms. However, very little research has actually been done on some of these treatments. Additionally, the research that has been done fails to compare these treatments against one another in terms of symptom relief. The Autism Treatment Effectiveness Survey, written by Dr. James Adams, director of the Autism/Asperger's Research Program at ASU, and graduate student/program coordinator Devon Coleman, aims to fill this gap. The survey numerically rates medications based on benefit and adverse effects, in addition to naming specific symptoms that are impacted by the treatments. However, the survey itself was retrospective in nature and requires further evidence to support its claims. Therefore, the purpose of this research paper is to evaluate evidence related to the results of the survey. After the performing an extensive literature review of over 70 different treatments, it appears that the findings of the Autism Treatment Effectiveness Survey are generally well supported. There were a few minor discrepancies regarding the primary benefitted symptom, but there was not enough of a conflict to discount the information from the survey. As research is still ongoing, conclusions cannot yet be drawn for Nutritional Supplements, although the current data looks promising.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

133696-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of Yeast and Fungi in Children with ASD vs. Neurotypical Controls

Description

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to a complex and diverse microbial ecosystem that contributes to health or disease in many aspects. While bacterial species are the majority in the GI tract, their cohabitants, fungal species, should not be forgotten.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to a complex and diverse microbial ecosystem that contributes to health or disease in many aspects. While bacterial species are the majority in the GI tract, their cohabitants, fungal species, should not be forgotten. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often suffer from GI disorders and associated symptoms, implying a role the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota play in maintaining human health. The irregularities in GI symptoms can negatively affect the overall quality of life or even worsen behavioral symptoms the children present. Even with the increase in the availability of next-generation sequencing technologies, the composition and diversities of fungal microbiotas are understudied, especially in the context of ASD. We therefore aimed to investigate the gut mycobiota of 36 neurotypical children and 38 children with ASD. We obtained stool samples from all participants, as well as autism severity and GI symptom scores to help us understand the effect the mycobiome has on these symptoms. By targeting the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and bacterial 16S rRNA V4 regions, we obtained fungal and bacterial amplicon sequences, from which we investigated the diversities, composition, and potential link between two different ecological clades. From fungal amplicon sequencing results, we observed a significant decrease in the observed fungal OTUs in children with ASD, implying a lack of potentially beneficial fungi in ASD subjects. We performed Bray-Curtis principal coordinates analysis and observed significant differences in fungal microbiota composition between the two groups. Taxonomic analysis showed higher relative abundances of Candida , Pichia, Penicillium , and Exophiala in ASD subjects, yet due to a large dispersion of data, the differences were not statistically significant. Interestingly, we observed a bimodal distribution of Candida abundances within children with ASD. Candida's relative abundance was not significantly correlated with GI scores, but children with high Candida relative abundances presented significantly higher Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) scores, suggesting a role of Candida on ASD behavioral symptoms. Regarding the bacterial gut microbiota, we found marginally lower observed OTUs and significantly lower relative abundance of Prevotella in the ASD group, which was consistent with previous studies. Taken together, we demonstrated that autism is closely linked with a distinct gut mycobiota, characterized by a loss of fungal and bacterial diversity and an altered fungal and bacterial composition.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

132905-Thumbnail Image.png

Increasing Academic and Social Accessibility at Arizona State University for Students with Autism  Spectrum Disorder: A Program Evaluation

Description

This qualitative study considers past literature on postsecondary education for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. In addition to this, it explains two existing specialized programs at universities for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and discusses strengths and

This qualitative study considers past literature on postsecondary education for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. In addition to this, it explains two existing specialized programs at universities for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and discusses strengths and areas of consideration. This study explains best practices and analyzes how to develop a specialized program that embodies best practice at Arizona State University.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

Emotion Regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Neural Mechanisms and Mood Symptoms

Description

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly comorbid with mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Previous research suggests difficulties in emotion regulation to be concordant with experiencing these comorbid symptoms. Understanding the neural correlates of emotion regulation in ASD and

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly comorbid with mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Previous research suggests difficulties in emotion regulation to be concordant with experiencing these comorbid symptoms. Understanding the neural correlates of emotion regulation in ASD and relationships with mood symptoms could provide insights for effective treatments. We employed an existing functional MRI paradigm to assess neural activation during an emotional regulation task in adults with ASD, and correlate activated regions with self-reported measures of depression and anxiety. We found the following regions to be significantly associated with emotion regulation (family-wise error corrected p<0.05): the bilateral insula, anterior cingulate, middle cingulate, precentral gyrus, angular gyrus, left dorsolateral PFC, right caudate/putamen, and left medial PFC. We found anxiety, but not depression, symptoms were negatively correlated with activation in the anterior cingulate, left insula, and left putamen, and showed a moderate relationship to the amygdala. These results expand current understanding of ASD and emotion regulation and suggest targets for future clinical intervention.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

Effect of Dietary/Nutritional Treatment on Symptoms of Autism

Description

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a disorder that makes learning, socializing and daily living much more challenging for affected children and adults because of their atypical behaviors. A few examples of these behaviors are repetitive movements, impulsive actions, inability to communicate

Autism Spectrum Disorder is a disorder that makes learning, socializing and daily living much more challenging for affected children and adults because of their atypical behaviors. A few examples of these behaviors are repetitive movements, impulsive actions, inability to communicate in a social setting, and many more. There is a stigma behind autism that is caused by those who are not well informed on the disorder. These people lack information, and in the past, it was assumed that the disorder is caused by "bad parenting." The parents are then afraid of social shame brought upon them by their child and neglect or avoid a diagnosis for their child's disorder. This becomes a vicious cycle that has negative effects on the affected individuals and their loved ones. Neglect of a diagnosis may also be caused by misinformation interpreted by the parents as their child develops. The parents do not realize this child developing outside of normal behavioral patterns. Years of research have been done to attempt to alleviate the symptoms of autism and cure the disorder. The Autism and Asperger's Program at ASU has developed a year-long dietary plan that increases supplementation to alleviate nutritional deficiencies in participants with autism. These deficiencies include vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, sulfate, carnitine, and digestive enzymes such as sucrase, maltase, and lactase. The participants were also put on a gluten-free casein-free diet toward the end of the study. To test the effectiveness of the treatment, the Severity of Autism Scale (SAS) and Social Responsiveness Scales (SRS) were used. The SAS tested the overall severity of ASD participants by rating them from one to ten, ten being "very severe" in terms of ASD symptoms. The results of this scale were compared at the beginning of the study (day 0) and at the end of the study (day 365). The SRS tested the social responsiveness of participants in the form of overall SRS and five subscales that included awareness, cognition, communication, motivation, and mannerisms. These results were also compared at the beginning and end of the study. After analysis of the data, there seemed to be no correlation between age and severity of autism/social responsiveness of participants. There was also no statistically significant data to suggest that there was a correlation between gender and severity of autism/social responsiveness of participants. However, there was statistically significant evidence that the treatment group did improve over the non-treatment/delayed treatment group in both the SAS and SRS. Neither age nor gender had a significant effect on the effectiveness of the treatment. These positive findings suggest that the integrated dietary
utritional therapy was beneficial, and future research on dietary treatments for autism and other disorders is recommended. This may also further discoveries of affected epigenomes with regards to nutritional treatments in disorders like ASD. The epigenome is the methylation and demethylation of the genome that mediates gene expression.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

147845-Thumbnail Image.png

Testing for “Hyper Theory of Mind” in Autism: Honors Thesis

Description

In this thesis I will explore deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) in autistic people due to new evidence that they do not completely lack a ToM. A new theory is proposed, claiming that autistic people use a Hyper Theory

In this thesis I will explore deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) in autistic people due to new evidence that they do not completely lack a ToM. A new theory is proposed, claiming that autistic people use a Hyper Theory of Mind (HyperToM) which has some application and processing differences from typical ToM. The HyperToM test will be administered as an online questionnaire that includes a self-reported Autism Quotient (AQ) section. The study is done in low support needs autistic (LSA) adults, which should have a developed ToM due to age and ability. Results showed some correlations with the AQ symptoms and HyperToM, but not enough diagnosed autistic people (9) participated in this study for significant results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05

152101-Thumbnail Image.png

We do love them equally: parental perceptions of being a sibling of a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)

Description

This thesis is a qualitative research study that focuses on siblings of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Even though it is expected that having a child with ASD in the family will influence the whole family including siblings of

This thesis is a qualitative research study that focuses on siblings of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Even though it is expected that having a child with ASD in the family will influence the whole family including siblings of the child with ASD, the sibling population is rarely included in research related to children with ASD, and there is only limited services available for them. This exploratory study (n=6) is aimed at better understanding the siblings' lives in their family settings in order to identify the siblings' unmet needs and determine how they have been influenced by the child with ASD. This study is also aimed at identifying the most appropriate support for the siblings to help them cope better. The study followed the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation and a narrative theory approach. An in-depth interview with the parents was conducted for the study, so the findings reflect the parents' perception of the siblings. All the themes emerged into two categories: life in the family setting and supports. The findings indicate that the families are striving for balance between the siblings and the children with ASD, but still tend to focus more on the children with ASD. Also, the families tend to have autonomous personal support systems. The parents tend to perceive that these personal support systems are good enough for the siblings; therefore, the parents do not feel that formal support for the siblings was necessary. As a result of the findings, recommendations are made for the organizations that work with individuals with ASD to provide more appropriate services for the families of children with ASD, including siblings. Also, recommendations are made for future studies to clarify more factors related to the siblings due to the limitation of this study; the siblings' lives were reflected vicariously via the parents.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

Breaking the Spectrum: A Documentary About Transitioning to Adulthood on the Autism Spectrum

Description

The unemployment rate for adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) sits between 88 and 95 percent. With the prevalence of ASDs growing by the year, the transition into adulthood is a problem this country will increasingly face. To shed light

The unemployment rate for adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) sits between 88 and 95 percent. With the prevalence of ASDs growing by the year, the transition into adulthood is a problem this country will increasingly face. To shed light on this issue and spread awareness, the method was to create a documentary 26 minutes in length about the transition adults with ASDs face after graduating high school. The result was "Breaking the Spectrum," which includes testimony from adults with ASDs who have jobs, attend skills programs or go to college, experts in the field and founders of organizations who seek to decrease the unemployment rate.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2014-05

150237-Thumbnail Image.png

Identification of printed nonsense words for an individual with autism: a comparison of constant time delay and stimulus fading

Description

This study compared a stimulus fading (SF) procedure with a constant time delay (CTD) procedure for identification of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonsense words for a participant with autism. An alternating treatments design was utilized through a computer-based format. Receptive identification of

This study compared a stimulus fading (SF) procedure with a constant time delay (CTD) procedure for identification of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonsense words for a participant with autism. An alternating treatments design was utilized through a computer-based format. Receptive identification of target words was evaluated using a computer format and the researcher conducted a generalization probe for expressive identification evaluation. Neither treatment condition resulted in consistent gains on the receptive identification measure. Both treatment conditions resulted in gains on the expressive identification assessment. The SF treatment condition was more efficient due to 1) accuracy in identifying all of the SF target words in fewer sessions than the CTD target words and 2) incidental learning that occurred as a result of exposure to additional SF words as distracter choices and in receptive identification assessments. Implications are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011