Matching Items (10)

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On Empathy Development in Young Children

Description

During the formative years, habits, outlooks, and attitudes develop which influence social interaction throughout life. Because empathy is crucial in social interaction, empathy development should be supported. Evidence of empathy is first observed around the age of two (Radke-Yarrow et

During the formative years, habits, outlooks, and attitudes develop which influence social interaction throughout life. Because empathy is crucial in social interaction, empathy development should be supported. Evidence of empathy is first observed around the age of two (Radke-Yarrow et al., 1983, 1984; Spinrad & Fabes, 2009). The purpose of this thesis is to examine empathy in children from multiple perspectives. The scientific literature reviews the discovery of the mirror neuron system (MNS). A study on nine- and ten-year-old children showed a correlation between MNS activity and empathic concern (Pfeifer et al. 2008). Another study with a mean age of 11 demonstrated that high emotional intelligence (EI) resulted in more nominations for "cooperation" and less for "aggression" (Petrides, Sangareau, Furnham & Frederickson, 2006). The three most common EI tests (MSCEIT, TEIQue, Bar-On) are modeled to measure empathy (Bar-On, 2006; Goleman 1998, 1995; Mayer & Caruso 1997; Petrides & Furnham 2001). Psychologists agree that low measures are linked to narcissistic and aggressive behavior. The Observational Study analyzed both evidence of empathy and a lack of empathy in interactions with three- and four-year-old children. Personal experiences were also shared on how empathy was understood and practiced. Lastly, the children's short story was written to support empathy development through fiction-reading.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-12

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Underwater Communication for Scuba Diving Applications

Description

This thesis is a proposition for an addition to an engineering project that involves creating a heads up display for a scuba diving mask which displays important safety information. The premise of this thesis includes three different features: distress, distance,

This thesis is a proposition for an addition to an engineering project that involves creating a heads up display for a scuba diving mask which displays important safety information. The premise of this thesis includes three different features: distress, distance, and direction. The distress feature is to alert a diver that their “buddy diver” is having an emergency and is requiring attention. Distance and direction are intended to be included on the heads up display, informing the diver of the relative location of their “buddy diver” in case they have lost sight of them. A set of requirements was created to find the most practical solutions. From these requirements and extensive research, three different methods of underwater communication were found, but only one, acoustics, was feasible for the scope of this project. Using modems and transducers, an acoustic signal is able to be sent from one diver to another in order to detect relative location as well as send a message of distress. Ultimately, two possible concepts were designed, with one deemed as most advantageous. This concept engages the use of four transponders that have the ability to transmit and receive high frequencies, minimizes blind spots, and is small enough to not cause discomfort or be obstructive to the divers experience.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Underwater Communication for Scuba Diving Applications

Description

This thesis is a proposition for an addition to an engineering project that involves creating a heads up display for a scuba diving mask which displays important safety information. The premise of this thesis includes three different features: distress, distance,

This thesis is a proposition for an addition to an engineering project that involves creating a heads up display for a scuba diving mask which displays important safety information. The premise of this thesis includes three different features: distress, distance, and direction. The distress feature is to alert a diver that their “buddy diver” is having an emergency and is requiring attention. Distance and direction are intended to be included on the heads up display, informing the diver of the relative location of their “buddy diver” in case they have lost sight of them. A set of requirements was created to find the most practical solutions. From these requirements and extensive research, three potential methods of underwater communication were found; electromagnetic waves in the radio frequency range, optical waves, and acoustic waves. Of these three methods, acoustic waves were found to be most feasible for the scope of this project. Using modems and transducers, an acoustic signal is able to be sent from one diver to another in order to detect relative location as well as send a message of distress. Ultimately, two possible concepts were designed, with one deemed as most advantageous. This concept engages the use of four transponders that have the ability to transmit and receive high frequencies, minimizes blind spots, and is small enough to not cause discomfort or be obstructive to the divers experience. Due to the nature of this application, the team is able to propose a path of development for a compact communication system between scuba divers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Underwater Communication for Scuba Diving Applications

Description

This thesis is a proposition for an addition to an engineering project that involves creating a heads up display for a scuba diving mask which displays important safety information. The premise of this thesis includes three different features: distress, distance,

This thesis is a proposition for an addition to an engineering project that involves creating a heads up display for a scuba diving mask which displays important safety information. The premise of this thesis includes three different features: distress, distance, and direction. The distress feature is to alert a diver that their “buddy diver” is having an emergency and is requiring attention. Distance and direction are intended to be included on the heads up display, informing the diver of the relative location of their “buddy diver” in case they have lost sight of them. A set of requirements was created to find the most practical solutions. From these requirements and extensive research, three potential methods of underwater communication were found; electromagnetic waves in the radio frequency range, optical waves, and acoustic waves. Of these three methods, acoustic waves were found to be most feasible for the scope of this project. Using modems and transducers, an acoustic signal is able to be sent from one diver to another in order to detect relative location as well as send a message of distress. Ultimately, two possible concepts were designed, with one deemed as most advantageous. This concept engages the use of four transponders that have the ability to transmit and receive high frequencies, minimizes blind spots, and is small enough to not cause discomfort or be obstructive to the divers experience. Due to the nature of this application, the team is able to propose a path of development for a compact communication system between scuba divers.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Stresses and distresses of professional Taiwanese tennis players and resources they use to cope

Description

Playing tennis professionally is a stressful profession. However, it has the potential to be even more stressful for players who must move from their home country in order to train. If not dealt with, these stresses have the potential of

Playing tennis professionally is a stressful profession. However, it has the potential to be even more stressful for players who must move from their home country in order to train. If not dealt with, these stresses have the potential of causing many negative outcomes, including increasing levels of distress, in these professional tennis players. It is known that resources play a role in reducing or buffering levels of stress and distress among individuals, but there are competing theories as to how this occurs. Using Ensel and Lin's models of stress processes, this is an exploratory study that identifies the stresses and distresses professional Taiwanese tennis players face and the resources they use to cope. Participants included in this study are professional Taiwanese tennis players (2 males and 2 females) who continuously attend national and international tennis competitions and have both domestic and world ranks. Results from the semi-structured interviews revealed that challenges, frustration, resources, and toughness were four general themes to describe stresses and distresses professional Taiwanese tennis players face and the resources they use to cope. Future research for professional tennis players is also discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Time perspective as a predictor of psychological distress

Description

In 2012, there were an estimated 43.7 million adults in the United States that had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2013). Given the large frequency of disorders, it is beneficial

In 2012, there were an estimated 43.7 million adults in the United States that had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2013). Given the large frequency of disorders, it is beneficial to learn about what factors influence psychological distress. One construct that has been increasingly examined in association with mental disorders is time perspective. The current study will investigate whether or not time perspective, as measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), has a unique contribution to the prediction of psychological distress. Studies have shown that time perspective has been related to psychological symptomology. Also, previous studies have shown that time perspective has been related to the constructs of neuroticism and negative affect, which have also been shown to be related to psychological distress. I also included the deviation from an optimal time perspective (DOTP) as a predictor separate from the ZTPI scales. So, I investigated whether or not time perspective has a unique influence on psychological distress when controlling for the previously mentioned related constructs. I also controlled for gender and age by including them as covariates in the regression analyses. I found that the past positive sub-scale and DOTP were significant predictors of psychological distress. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Enterprise Distress Cost: United States Air Force Airfield Pavement Inventory

Description

United States Air Force airfield PAVER pavement management system enterprise data was reviewed for 67 networks. The distress survey extents and severity fields were joined with treatment costs estimated using RSMeans to determine the costliest distress. In asphalt surfaced pavements

United States Air Force airfield PAVER pavement management system enterprise data was reviewed for 67 networks. The distress survey extents and severity fields were joined with treatment costs estimated using RSMeans to determine the costliest distress. In asphalt surfaced pavements Longitudinal/transverse cracking, weathering, and block cracking resulted in the most pavement condition index (PCI) deducts while the costliest distresses are weathering, block cracking and longitudinal cracking. In portland cement concrete surfaced pavements linear cracking, joint seal damage, and joint spalling resulted in the most PCI deducts while the costliest distresses are joint seal damage, linear cracking, and corner spalling. The results of this data were then compared to airfield attributes: Pavement Temperature Group, Dominant American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Soil Classification, Pavement- Transportation Computer Assisted Structural Engineering (PCASE) Climate Zone, and years since last maintenance. Maps showing the Pavement Temperature Group, Dominant AASHTO Soil Classification, and PCASE Climate Zone are included in Appendix A. Alligator cracking is most prevalent at the airfields with PTG 64-34 (Ellsworth, Fairchild, Hill, and Offutt) and 58-22 (Niagara and Vandenberg). Rutting is most prevalent at PTG 64-34 (Ellsworth, Fairchild, Hill, and Offutt). An increasing trend of joint spalling, corner spalling, and corner break with decreasing soil quality (AASHOTO A-1 to A-8 soils). The PCASE Climate Zone Cost Indices the cost index for weathering is approximately double in the moist region over the dry region. The cost index for block cracking is approximately double in the cold region over the hot region. It is recommended that the agency review its pavement performance modeling in the pavement management system to increase the recommendation of pavement preservation treatments and review the use of higher quality materials for pavement maintenance treatments.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020

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Role of Multiracial Resiliency on the Multiracial Risks - Psychological Adjustment Link Among Multiracial Adults

Description

A growing body of research indicates that people of multiple racial lineages in the US encounter challenges to positive psychological adjustment because of their racial status. In response, they also exhibit unique resilience strategies to combat these challenges. In this

A growing body of research indicates that people of multiple racial lineages in the US encounter challenges to positive psychological adjustment because of their racial status. In response, they also exhibit unique resilience strategies to combat these challenges. In this study, the moderating roles of previously identified multiracial resilient factors (i.e., shifting expressions, creating third space, and multiracial pride) were examined in the associations between unique multiracial risk factors (i.e., multiracial discrimination, perceived racial ambiguity, and lack of family acceptance) and psychological adjustment (i.e., satisfaction with life, social connectedness, and distress symptoms) of multiracial adults. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, results first indicated that the multiracial risk factors (i.e., multiracial discrimination, perceived racial ambiguity, and lack of family acceptance) relate negatively with social connectedness and distress symptoms, but did not significantly relate with satisfaction with life. Additionally, a differential moderating effect for one multiracial resilient factor was found, such that the protective or exacerbative role of creating third space depends on the psychological outcome. Specifically, results suggest creating third space buffers (e.g., weakens) the association between multiracial discrimination and satisfaction with life as well as lack of family acceptance and satisfaction with life among multiracial adults. Results further suggest creating third space exacerbates (e.g., strengthens) the negative association between perceived racial ambiguity on social connectedness and distress symptoms as well as lack of family acceptance on social connectedness and distress symptoms. Moreover, no two-way interaction effects were found for either of the other multiracial resilient factors (i.e., shifting expressions and multiracial pride). This study highlights the complex nature of racial identity for multiracial people, and the nuanced risk and resilience landscape encountered in the US.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Investigating the Role of Climate on Airfield Pavement Deterioration and Distress Occurrence Using Data from PAVEAIR Online Database

Description

Differences in climatic conditions, aircraft traffic, and maintenance practices drive airfield pavements to perform differently. Through the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) PAVEAIR online database and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) online public platform, historical pavement condition and climate

Differences in climatic conditions, aircraft traffic, and maintenance practices drive airfield pavements to perform differently. Through the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) PAVEAIR online database and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) online public platform, historical pavement condition and climate data from nearly 200 airfields in the dry freeze (DF), dry no-freeze (DNF), wet freeze (WF), and wet no-freeze (WNF) climatic regions were collected to evaluate pavement performance and distress trends. This research details the methodologies employed in the PAVEAIR pavement inspection data retrieval and dataset organization, and further presents the results of a two-part analysis. First, rate of deterioration (ROD) of various pavement families were evaluated by fitting a linear regression to the pavement condition index (PCI). Then, historical distresses data were analyzed for various pavement families in the different climatic regions. Families were assigned with respect to climate, pavement structure (conventional asphalt or asphalt overlays), and branch type (apron, taxiway, and runway).
The regression results showed that pavements in the WF region have the highest ROD, followed by the pavements in the DNF region. In terms of branch type, in three of four climatic regions, aprons have the fastest rate of deterioration, followed by taxiways and runways, respectively. The distress analytics revealed that cracking type of distresses were the most common in all the regions regardless of the pavement family.
The results showed that climatic data alone were not adequate to characterize airfield pavement behavior due to the multivariate factors affecting pavement deterioration. An accurate pavement and distress prediction modeling effort should at least include additional information on the structure and traffic level.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021

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Health Impacts of Water and Sanitation Insecurity in US Colonias: A Scoping Literature Review

Description

U.S. border colonias, otherwise known as Disadvantaged Unincorporated Communities, are rural settlements along the U.S. Mexico border with substandard housing conditions. Colonia residents often face inadequate access to necessities such as appropriate shelter, septic and sewer systems, and potable water.

U.S. border colonias, otherwise known as Disadvantaged Unincorporated Communities, are rural settlements along the U.S. Mexico border with substandard housing conditions. Colonia residents often face inadequate access to necessities such as appropriate shelter, septic and sewer systems, and potable water. Water insecurity in colonias poses a particularly difficult challenge for residents who require clean water not only for consumption, but also household use in sanitation and hygienic practices. As of 2015, an estimated 30% of over five million US colonia residents lack access to clean drinking water, resulting in health complications and unsanitary living conditions. Preliminary health data collected indicates that due to water insecurity, colonia residents are more likely to contract gastrointestinal disease, be exposed to carcinogenic compounds from contaminated water, and experience psychosocial distress. Yet more comprehensive research needs to be conducted to understand the full breadth of the public health issue. A scoping review on water insecurity in colonias has not been completed before and could be beneficial in informing policymakers and other stakeholders on the severity of the situation while advising possible solutions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-12