Matching Items (30)

Metallurgical Test Comparison of Aerospace Material using Additive Manufacturing Technologies vs. Wrought Technologies

Description

The aerospace industry has been conducting research on the additive manufacturing (AM) process since the 1980's, but companies have recently just begun to apply AM in hopes that this new

The aerospace industry has been conducting research on the additive manufacturing (AM) process since the 1980's, but companies have recently just begun to apply AM in hopes that this new technology will meet or exceed the requirements met by previous manufacturing methods, as well as producing more cost effective, geometrically-complex products. This investigation evaluated the performance of 3D-printed aerospace test specimens made by Powder Bed Fusion Technologies, and compared them to forged specimens. A design of experiments varying build parameters was conducted in order to determine AM component porosity. Factors such as powder post-processing, directionality of the build, and fractology of the samples were evaluated through tensile strength testing and hardness testing of Inconel 718 wrought and EBM printed materials. Using electron microsopy, the responses to these factors were analyzed for stress fractures, grain boundaries, and other defects that occurred in the testing process. The comparison determined which metallurgical process provides the most effective material for aircraft usage.

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  • 2017-05

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Photocurable Networks: A Composite Materials Platform that Enables Advances in Additive Manufacturing

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This study aims to provide a foundation for future work on photo-responsive polymer composite materials to be utilized in additive manufacturing processes. The curing rate of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone (DMPA) in

This study aims to provide a foundation for future work on photo-responsive polymer composite materials to be utilized in additive manufacturing processes. The curing rate of 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone (DMPA) in thin (<20 µm) and thick (>2 mm) layers of DMPA and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) mixtures was assessed for 5.0 w/v% (grams per 100 mL) concentrations of DMPA dissolved in PEG-DA. The polymerization rate and quality of curing was found to decrease as the concentration of DMPA increased beyond 1.0 w/v%; thus, confirming the existence of an optimum photo-initiator concentration for a specific sheet thickness. The optimum photo-initiator concentration for a 3-3.1 mm thick sheet of PEG-DA microstructure was determined to be between 0.3 and 0.38 w/v% DMPA. The addition of 1,6-hexanediol or 1,3-butanediol to the optimum photo-initiator concentrated solution of DMPA and PEG-DA was found to increase the Tg of the samples; however, the samples could not fully cure within 40-50 s, which suggested a decrease in polymerization rate. Lastly, the DMPA photo-initiator does not produce gaseous byproducts and is translucent when fully cured, which makes it attractive for infusion with strengthening materials because quality light penetration is paramount to quick polymerization rates. It is recommended that more trials be conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of the optimum curing rate for DMPA and PEG-DA microstructures as well as a mechanical property comparison following the addition of either of the two alcohols.

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  • 2016-12

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A Study of Metal Additive Manufacturing: DMLS Design for Optimizing Automobile Components

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Automobiles can advance greatly with the introduction of metal additive manufactured components. Additive tooling is slowly becoming additive manufacturing and someday the technology will be advanced enough that high volume

Automobiles can advance greatly with the introduction of metal additive manufactured components. Additive tooling is slowly becoming additive manufacturing and someday the technology will be advanced enough that high volume can be supported. This research was conducted in order to show the advantages metal additive manufacturing has in the automobile industry. One large advantage to metal additive manufacturing is mass reduction. Components can be designed for production with different geometries than other manufacturing methods. The change in geometry can significantly reduce the product volume and therefore mass. Overall, mass reduction in the automotive industry is beneficial. Mass reduction can increase performance and fuel economy of the car. Once metal additive manufacturing becomes capable of higher production, metal additive manufacturing will play a major role in automobile manufacturing. Research was conducted to design and produce an optimized AC compressor bracket. The bracket was designed to the specifications of the OEM component, and the mass was reduced by more than half.

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  • 2017-05

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Dissolvable Metal Supports - Simplifying Metals Printing

Description

Additive Manufacturing and 3D printing are becoming important technologies in the manufacturing sector. The benefits of this technology include complex part geometry, short lead-times, low waste, and simple user interface.

Additive Manufacturing and 3D printing are becoming important technologies in the manufacturing sector. The benefits of this technology include complex part geometry, short lead-times, low waste, and simple user interface. However, the technology does not come without its drawbacks: mainly the removal of support structures from the component. Traditional techniques that involve sawing and cutting can be expensive and take a long time, increasing the overall price of 3D printed metal components. This paper discusses two approaches taken for dissolvable support structures in 3D printed stainless steel (17-4 PH). For the first time in powder bed fusion components, with the help of Christopher Lefky and Dr. Owen Hildreth, dissolvable support capabilities are achieved in metal prints. The first approach, direct dissolution, involves direct corrosion of the entire part, leading to support removal. This approach is not self-terminating, and leads to changes in final component geometry. The second approach involves a post-build sensitization step, which physically alters the microstructure and chemical stability of the first 100-200 microns of the metal. The component is then etched at an electric potential that will readily corrode this sensitized surface, but not the underlying base metal. An electrolytic solution of HNO3/KCl/HCl paired with an anodic bias was used for the direct dissolution approach, resulting in a loss of about 120 microns of material from the components surface. For the self-limiting approach, surface sensitization was achieve through a post build annealing step (800 C for 6 hours, air cooled) with exposure to a sodium hexacynoferrate slurry. When the slurry decomposes in the furnace, carbon atoms diffuse into the surface and precipitate a chromium-carbide, which reduces the chemical stability of the stainless steel. Etching is demonstrated in an anodic bias of HNO3/KCl. To determine proper etching potentials, open circuit potential and cyclic voltammetry experiments were run to create Potentiodynamic Polarization Curves. Further testing of the self-terminating approach was performed on a 316 stainless steel interlocking ring structure with a complex geometry. In this case, 32.5 hours of etching at anodic potentials replaced days of mechanical sawing and cutting.

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  • 2016-12

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Effect of Powder Re-use on DMLS Product Integrity

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The purpose of this honors project is to analyze the difference between different powder separation techniques, and their suitability for my capstone project – ‘Effect of Powder Reuse on DMLS

The purpose of this honors project is to analyze the difference between different powder separation techniques, and their suitability for my capstone project – ‘Effect of Powder Reuse on DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering) Product Integrity’. Due to the nature of my capstone project, my group needs to characterize foreign contaminants in IN 718 (Ni-based superalloy) powder with a mean diameter around 40um. In order to clearly analyze the contaminants and recycle useful IN 718 powders, powder separation is favorable since the filtered samples will be much easier to characterize rather than inspect all the powders at once under microscope. By conducting literature review, I found that powder separation is commonly used in Geology, and Chemistry department. To screen which combination of techniques could be the best for my project, I have consulted several research specialists, obtained adequate knowledge about powder separation. Accordingly, I will summarize the pros and cons of each method with regard the specific project that I am working on, and further explore the impacts of each method under economical, societal, and environmental considerations. Several powder separation techniques will be discussed in details in the following sections, including water elutriation, settling column, magnetic separation and centrifugation. In addition to these methods, sieving, water tabling and panning will be briefly introduced. After detailed comparison, I found that water elutriation is the most efficient way to purity IN718 powder for reuse purpose, and recovery rate is as high as 70%, which could result in a significant reduction in the manufacturing cost for Honeywell since currently Honeywell only use virgin powders to build parts, and 90% of the leftover powders are discarded.

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  • 2016-05

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Effect of Powder Recycling on Direct-Metal-Laser-Sintered Aerospace Alloy

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This project sought to analyze the effects of recycling Inconel 718 powder for Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMSL) for additive manufacturing by testing low cycle fatigue tensile samples ranging from

This project sought to analyze the effects of recycling Inconel 718 powder for Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMSL) for additive manufacturing by testing low cycle fatigue tensile samples ranging from virgin to ten times recycled. Fracture generally occurs at the sample surface where persistent slip planes form and accumulate to cause a sudden fracture leading to signature markings for various phases of crack growth. Effects caused by contamination would be found in the first region of crack growth at the initiation site as the cause stress concentration. Tensile strength and fatigue life were compared to initiation site size found from fracture images obtained using scanning electron microscope imaging which found no significant deviations from the expected surface cracking and LCF region of slip plane buildups. Contamination was not found at any initiation site indicating that fracture life was not impacted by the amount of powder recycling. LCF life ranged from 60,000 to 250,000 which the majority experiencing fractures near 120,000 cyclic loadings. If defect effects were to be found than the low fatigue life sample would exhibit them however its fracture surface did not exhibit contamination but a slight increase in porosity found in the phase III cracking region. The In 718 powders were also analyzed to determine that the primary powder contaminates were brush fibers used to sweep away unused powders during processing however these were not seen in the final DMLS samples.

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  • 2016-05

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An Examination of the Impact of Support Design on 316 Stainless Steel Supports

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The removal of support material from metal 3D printed objects is a laborious necessity for the post-processing of powder bed fusion printing (PBF). Supports are typically mechanically removed by machining

The removal of support material from metal 3D printed objects is a laborious necessity for the post-processing of powder bed fusion printing (PBF). Supports are typically mechanically removed by machining techniques. Sacrificial supports are necessary in PBF printing to relieve thermal stresses and support overhanging parts often resulting in the inclusion of supports in regions of the part that are not easily accessed by mechanical removal methods. Recent innovations in PBF support removal include dissolvable metal supports through an electrochemical etching process. Dissolvable PBF supports have the potential to significantly reduce the costs and time associated with traditional support removal. However, the speed and effectiveness of this approach is inhibited by numerous factors such as support geometry and metal powder entrapment within supports. To fully realize this innovative approach, it is necessary to model and understand the design parameters necessary to optimize support structures applicable to an electrochemical etching process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of block additive manufacturing support parameters on key process outcomes of the dissolution of 316 stainless steel support structures. The parameters investigated included hatch spacing and perforation, and the outcomes of interests included time required for completion, surface roughness, and effectiveness of the etching process. Electrical current was also evaluated as an indicator of process completion. Analysis of the electrical current throughout the etching process showed that the dissolution is diffusion limited to varying degrees, and is dependent on support structure parameters. Activation and passivation behavior was observed during current leveling, and appeared to be more pronounced in non-perforated samples with less dense hatch spacing. The correlation between electrical current and completion of the etching process was unclear, as the support structures became mechanically removable well before the current leveled. The etching process was shown to improve surface finish on unsupported surfaces, but support was shown to negatively impact surface finish. Tighter hatch spacing was shown to correlate to larger variation in surface finish, due to ridges left behind by the support structures. In future studies, it is recommended current be more closely correlated to process completion and more roughness data be collected to identify a trend between hatch spacing and surface roughness.

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  • 2018-05

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Theoretical Modeling of Ti6Al4V Alloy Based on Testing Results

Description

Titanium has been and continues to be a popular metal across any form of manufacturing and production because of its extremely favorable properties. In important circumstances, it finds itself outclassing

Titanium has been and continues to be a popular metal across any form of manufacturing and production because of its extremely favorable properties. In important circumstances, it finds itself outclassing many metals by being lighter and less dense than comparably strong metals like steel. Relative to other metals it has a noteworthy corrosion resistance as it is stable when it oxidizes, and due to the inert nature of the metal, it is famously hypoallergenic and as a result used in a great deal of aviation and medical fields, including being used to produce replacement joints, with the notable limitation of the material being its cost of manufacturing. Among the variants of the metal and alloys used, Ti6Al4V alloy is famous for being the most reliable and popular combination for electron beam manufacturing(EBM) as a method of additive manufacturing. <br/>Developed by the Swedish Arcam, AB, EBM is one of the more recent methods of additive manufacturing, and is notable for its lack of waste by combining most of the material into the intended product due to its precision. This method, much like the titanium it is used to print in this case, is limited mostly by time and value of production. <br/>For this thesis, nine different simulations of a dogbone model were generated and analyzed in Ansys APDL using finite element analysis at various temperature and print conditions to create a theoretical model based on experimentally produced values.

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  • 2021-05

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Pumping Technologies for Additive Manufacturing Processes Using Chocolate

Description

Working with chocolate is a difficult endeavor. However, through the use of additive manufacturing technologies, the labor involved can be reduced. One difficulty is the pumping of the melted chocolate

Working with chocolate is a difficult endeavor. However, through the use of additive manufacturing technologies, the labor involved can be reduced. One difficulty is the pumping of the melted chocolate through the system onto the print bed of the printer. In this paper, three systems of transferring chocolate are investigated: A syringe system, a gear pump system, and an auger system. Each system is explained with a model of the proposed system and the pros and cons are discussed. Lastly, a system composed of parts of the syringe and auger system is proposed. The positive and negative aspects of this design are discussed, and a 3D model of the system is given as well. This system is suggested as a better option, and future research can be done to investigate and rate these systems in greater detail. In commercial food applications, these technologies can change the way chocolate is manipulated, and difficult practices can be simplified for home chefs.

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  • 2021-05

Additive Manufacturing: The Effect of a Technology Shift on the Economy

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A look at current 3D printing capabilities, and exploring the potential for additive manufacturing to transform the economy in the future.

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  • 2013-05