Matching Items (2)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

153762-Thumbnail Image.png

Odd occupation: effects of counter-stereotypical images on sexist beliefs

Description

The advertising industry plays a crucial role in how ideals and norms are established in United States society. Recent work is revealing the negative impact advertisements can have on self-esteem and self-image, especially for women. Unrealistic body-types, often created

The advertising industry plays a crucial role in how ideals and norms are established in United States society. Recent work is revealing the negative impact advertisements can have on self-esteem and self-image, especially for women. Unrealistic body-types, often created through photo editing, continue to contribute to eating and emotional disorders. Such fabricated ideals hinder the progress of social and economic justice for women. This exploratory study investigates whether images of women in traditionally male-dominated roles can weaken sexist attitudes and whether less sexism and highly sexist groups differ in image processing. Participants who scored high or low on the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory were exposed to a set of images of females in the female-dominated occupation of waitress and females in the male-dominated occupation of construction while measuring their neural activity using EEG. Participants complete the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory before and after the experiment. P3 oddball effects are measured for each participant with the hypothesis that the High Sexism group will view female construction workers with a higher oddball effect than the low sexism group. With 38 participants, there is a significant difference between the groups with individuals scoring low on the ASI showing a greater difference between the waitress and construction worker images compared to individuals scoring high on the ASI. Further, exposure to these images did not significantly reduce ASI scores in either group.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

156730-Thumbnail Image.png

Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS): A Comprehensive Sexism Scale

Description

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert

Overt forms of sexism have become less frequent (Swim Hyers, Cohen & Ferguson, 2001; Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Nonetheless, scholars contend that sexism is still pervasive but often manifests as female microaggressions, which have been defined as often subtle, covert forms of gender discrimination (Capodilupo et al., 2010). Extant sexism scales fail to capture female microaggresions, limiting understanding of the correlates and consequences of women’s experiences of gender discrimination. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop the Female Microaggressions Scale (FeMS) based on an existing theoretical taxonomy and content analysis of social media data, which identifies diverse forms of sexism. Two separate studies were conducted for exploratory factor analysis (N = 582) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 325). Exploratory factor analyses supported an eight-factor, correlated structure and confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model, with eight specific factors and one general FeMS factor. Overall, reliability and validity of the FeMS (general FeMS and subscales) were mostly supported in the two present samples of diverse women. The FeMS’ subscales and body surveillance were significantly positively correlated. Results regarding correlations between the FeMS subscales and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction were mixed. The FeMS (general FeMS) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety, body surveillance, and another measure of sexism but not depression or life satisfaction. Furthermore, the FeMS (general FeMS) explained variance in anxiety and body surveillance (but not depression, self-esteem, or life satisfaction) above and beyond that explained by an existing sexism measure and explained variance in anxiety and depression (but not self-esteem) above and beyond that explained by neuroticism. Implications for future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018