Matching Items (4)

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What Drives Mergers and Acquisitions? The Effects of Compensation Structure and Managerial Hubris on Executive Decision-Making

Description

This thesis seeks to explore the contrast between the performance of mergers and acquisitions and the propensity of CEOs to enter into these deals. M&A are common means by which

This thesis seeks to explore the contrast between the performance of mergers and acquisitions and the propensity of CEOs to enter into these deals. M&A are common means by which firms achieve inorganic growth, but they often perform poorly and fail to accrue expected returns. This apparent contrast between deal popularity and performance prompts further examination and an application of theoretical concepts from the field of strategic management. Following a review of M&A theory, this thesis explores agency theory and managerial hubris and applies these concepts to executive decision-making in M&A. Four hypotheses are presented, evaluating the effects of compensation structure and overconfidence on the M&A decision-making behavior of executives.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Corrective Responses to Auditory Feedback Perturbations During Speaking

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The brain continuously monitors speech output to detect potential errors between its sensory prediction and its sensory production (Daliri et al., 2020). When the brain encounters an error, it generates

The brain continuously monitors speech output to detect potential errors between its sensory prediction and its sensory production (Daliri et al., 2020). When the brain encounters an error, it generates a corrective motor response, usually in the opposite direction, to reduce the effect of the error. Previous studies have shown that the type of auditory error received may impact a participant’s corrective response. In this study, we examined whether participants respond differently to categorical or non-categorical errors. We applied two types of perturbation in real-time by shifting the first formant (F1) and second formant (F2) at three different magnitudes. The vowel /ɛ/ was shifted toward the vowel /æ/ in the categorical perturbation condition. In the non-categorical perturbation condition, the vowel /ɛ/ was shifted to a sound outside of the vowel quadrilateral (increasing both F1 and F2). Our results showed that participants responded to the categorical perturbation while they did not respond to the non-categorical perturbation. Additionally, we found that in the categorical perturbation condition, as the magnitude of the perturbation increased, the magnitude of the response increased. Overall, our results suggest that the brain may respond differently to categorical and non-categorical errors, and the brain is highly attuned to errors in speech.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Coordination in the Arm after a Rotator Cuff Tear in the Elderly

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Introduction: Individuals with rotator cuff tears have been found to compensate in their movement patterns by using lower thoracohumeral elevation angles during certain tasks, as well as increased internal rotation

Introduction: Individuals with rotator cuff tears have been found to compensate in their movement patterns by using lower thoracohumeral elevation angles during certain tasks, as well as increased internal rotation of the shoulder (Vidt et al., 2016). Leading joint hypothesis suggests there is one leading joint that creates the foundation for the entire limb motion, and there are other subordinate joints which monitor the passive interaction torque and create a net torque aiding to limb motions required for the task. This experiment seeks to establish a better understanding of joint control strategies during a wide range of arm movements. Based on the leading joint hypothesis, we hypothesize that when a subject has a rotator cuff tear, their performance of planar and three-dimensional motions should be altered not only at the shoulder, which is often the leading joint, but also at other joints on the arm, such as the elbow and wrist. This paper will focus on the effect of normal aging on the control of the joints of the arm.
Methods: There were 4 groups of participants: healthy younger adults (n=14)(21.74 ± 1.97), healthy older adults (n=12)(55-75), older adults (n=4)(55-75) with a partial-thickness rotator cuff tear, and older adults (n=4)(55-75) with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear (RCT). All four groups completed strength testing, horizontal drawing and pointing tasks, and three dimensional (3D) activities of daily living. Kinematic and kinetic variables of the arm were obtained during horizontal and 3D tasks using data from 12 reflective markers placed on the arm, 8 motion capture cameras, and Cortex motion capture software (Motion Analysis Corp., Santa Rosa, CA). Strength testing tasks were measured using a dynamometer. All strength testing and 3D tasks were completed for three trials and horizontal tasks were completed for two trials.
Results: Results of the younger adult participants showed that during the forward portion of seven 3D tasks, there were four phases of different joint control mechanics seen in a majority of the movements. These phases included active rotation of both the shoulder and the elbow joint, active rotation of the shoulder with passive rotation of the elbow, passive rotation of the shoulder with active rotation of the elbow, and passive rotation of both the shoulder and the elbow. Passive rotation during movements was a result of gravitational torque on the different segments of the arm and interaction torque caused as a result of the multi-joint structure of human limbs. The number of tested participants for the minor RCT, and RCT older adults groups is not yet high enough to produce significant results and because of this their results are not reported in this article. Between the older adult control group and the young adult control group in the tasks upward reach to eye height and hair comb there were significant differences found between the groups. The differences were found in shorter overall time and distance between the two groups in the upward eye task.
Discussion: Through the available results, multiple phases were found where one or both of the joints of the arm moved passively which further supports the LJH and extends it to include 3D movements. With available data, it can be concluded that healthy older adults use movement control strategies, such as shortening distance covered, decreasing time percentage in active joint phases, and increasing time percentage in passive joint phases, to account for atrophy along with other age-related declines in performance, such as a decrease in range of motion. This article is a part of a bigger project which aims to better understand how older adults with RCTs compensate for the decreased strength, the decreased range of motion, and the pain that accompany this type of injury. It is anticipated that the results of this experiment will lead to more research toward better understanding how to treat patients with RCTs.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Compensatory Responses During Unexpected Vowel Perturbations

Description

During speech, the brain is constantly processing and monitoring speech output through the auditory feedback loop to ensure correct and accurate speech. If the speech signal is experimentally altered/perturbed while

During speech, the brain is constantly processing and monitoring speech output through the auditory feedback loop to ensure correct and accurate speech. If the speech signal is experimentally altered/perturbed while speaking, the brain compensates for the perturbations by changing speech output in the opposite direction of the perturbations. In this study, we designed an experiment that examined the compensatory responses in response to unexpected vowel perturbations during speech. We applied two types of perturbations. In one condition, the vowel /ɛ/ was perturbed toward the vowel /æ/ by simultaneously shifting both the first formant (F1) and the second formant (F2) at 3 different levels (.5=small, 1=medium, and 1.5=large shifts). In another condition, the vowel /ɛ/ was perturbed by shifting F1 at 3 different levels (small, medium, and large shifts). Our results showed that there was a significant perturbation-type effect, with participants compensating more in response to perturbation that shifted /ɛ/ toward /æ/. In addition, we found that there was a significant level effect, with the compensatory responses to level .5 being significantly smaller than the compensatory responses to levels 1 and 1.5, regardless of the perturbation pathway. We also found that responses to shift level 1 and shift level 1.5 did not differ. Overall, our results highlighted the importance of the auditory feedback loop during speech production and how the brain is more sensitive to auditory errors that change a vowel category (e.g., /ɛ/ to /æ/).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05