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On the Way to Fraud: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Japanese Culture and How It Contributes to the Commitment of Fraud

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An ethical dilemma is not a matter of “right” versus “wrong,” but rather it is a situation of conflicting values. A common ethical dilemma is that of honesty versus loyalty—is it better to tell the truth, or remain loyal

An ethical dilemma is not a matter of “right” versus “wrong,” but rather it is a situation of conflicting values. A common ethical dilemma is that of honesty versus loyalty—is it better to tell the truth, or remain loyal to the company? In the Japanese culture, truth is circumstantial and can vary with different situations. In a way, the Japanese idea of honesty reflects how highly they value loyalty. This overlap of values results in the lack of an ethical dilemma for the Japanese, which creates a new risk for fraud. Without this struggle, a Japanese employee does not have strong justification against committing fraud if it aligns with his values of honesty and loyalty.
This paper looks at the Japanese values relating to honesty and loyalty to show how much these ideas overlap. The lack of a conflict of values creates a risk for fraud, which will be shown through an analysis of the scandals of two Japanese companies, Toshiba and Olympus. These scandals shine light on the complexity of the ethical dilemma for the Japanese employees; since their sense of circumstantial honesty encourages them to lie if it maintains the harmony of the group, there is little stopping them from committing the fraud that their superiors asked them to commit.
In a global economy, understanding the ways that values impact business and decisions is important for both interacting with others and anticipating potential conflicts, including those that may result in or indicate potential red flags for fraud.

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2018-05

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An Examination into the Effects of Age and Pressure on Ethical Behavior

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Age plays a major role in human behavior, yet little research examines how age shapes ethical behavior. We examine the effects of age on ethical behavior when people face three different ethical pressures: time pressure, financial pressure, and social pressure.

Age plays a major role in human behavior, yet little research examines how age shapes ethical behavior. We examine the effects of age on ethical behavior when people face three different ethical pressures: time pressure, financial pressure, and social pressure. We predict that younger people are more likely than older people to engage in unethical behavior. We also predict that younger people are more influenced by ethical pressures than older people. Results from an experiment provide evidence that younger people are more likely than older people to engage in unethical behavior. In addition, both older and younger people are influenced by the ethical pressures we examine in this study. However, the results do not provide evidence that younger people are more influenced by those ethical pressures than older people. Our study contributes to research examining ethical behavior and age differences in the workplace while providing managers and auditors with a larger perception of unethical drivers.

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2019-05

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The Cognitive Audit: The Effects of Cognitive Computing on Financial Audit Roles of Tomorrow

Description

Cognitive technology has been at the forefront of the minds of many technology, government, and business leaders, because of its potential to completely revolutionize their fields. Furthermore, individuals in financial statement auditor roles are especially focused on the impact of

Cognitive technology has been at the forefront of the minds of many technology, government, and business leaders, because of its potential to completely revolutionize their fields. Furthermore, individuals in financial statement auditor roles are especially focused on the impact of cognitive technology because of its potential to eliminate many of the tedious, repetitive tasks involved in their profession. Adopting new technologies that can autonomously collect more data from a broader range of sources, turn the data into business intelligence, and even make decisions based on that data begs the question of whether human roles in accounting will be completely replaced. A partial answer: If the ramifications of past technological advances are any indicator, cognitive technology will replace some human audit operations and grow some new and higher order roles for humans. It will shift the focus of accounting professionals to more complex judgment and analysis.
The next question: What do these changes in the roles and responsibilities look like for the auditors of the future? Cognitive technology will assuredly present new issues for which humans will have to find solutions.
• How will humans be able to test the accuracy and completeness of the decisions derived by cognitive systems?
• If cognitive computing systems rely on supervised learning, what is the most effective way to train systems?
• How will cognitive computing fair in an industry that experiences ever-changing industry regulations?
• Will cognitive technology enhance the quality of audits?
In order to answer these questions and many more, I plan on examining how cognitive technologies evolved into their use today. Based on this historic trajectory, stakeholder interviews, and industry research, I will forecast what auditing jobs may look like in the near future taking into account rapid advances in cognitive computing.
The conclusions forecast a future in auditing that is much more accurate, timely, and pleasant. Cognitive technologies allow auditors to test entire populations of transactions, to tackle audit issues on a more continuous basis, to alleviate the overload of work that occurs after fiscal year-end, and to focus on client interaction.

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2018-05

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Measures against Accounting Fraud and their Efficacy

Description

The competitive nature of business requires managers to consistently work towards eliminating unnecessary costs and improving financial management. Worldwide, fraud remains a pervasive and expensive problem for businesses. Fraud involving misappropriation of assets (commonly referred to as embezzlement) and fraudulent

The competitive nature of business requires managers to consistently work towards eliminating unnecessary costs and improving financial management. Worldwide, fraud remains a pervasive and expensive problem for businesses. Fraud involving misappropriation of assets (commonly referred to as embezzlement) and fraudulent financial reporting cost organizations trillions of dollars worldwide. To better understand the most effective ways of combating misappropriation and to a lesser extent, fraudulent financial reporting, this paper evaluates research and reports the results of expert interviews with accountants, forensic experts, and security specialists.

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2016-05

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Auditing Internal Controls: An Evaluation of Internal Controls in a Small Real Estate Firm

Description

This case study analyzed the internal controls of a real estate company using the widely accepted COSO framework. Testing of the internal environment and controls was completed using the COSO framework. The major internal control problem identified in the study

This case study analyzed the internal controls of a real estate company using the widely accepted COSO framework. Testing of the internal environment and controls was completed using the COSO framework. The major internal control problem identified in the study was a lack of ethical standards in the control environment. In addition to this main problem, inadequate documentation, no separation of duties, and unqualified employees were also identified as violations of effective internal controls. The department of real estate ordered a "cease and desist" on August 8, 2013 due to illegal company activities. The company participated in illegal actions regarding: the trust account and company documentation and procedures. Material weaknesses were found in the company's internal controls; therefore the result of this study was an adverse opinion on internal controls.

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2013-12

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Accounting Fraud in the Workplace Today and How To Prevent It

Description

This thesis discusses accounting fraud in the workplace today, using the recent Wirecard scandal as a jumping off point. The thesis goes into the common causes of accounting fraud (organized by the three components of the fraud triangle), effective methods

This thesis discusses accounting fraud in the workplace today, using the recent Wirecard scandal as a jumping off point. The thesis goes into the common causes of accounting fraud (organized by the three components of the fraud triangle), effective methods for countering fraud, and lessons that can be learned from the 2020 Wirecard scandal

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2021-05

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The Olympus Scandal (Accounting Fraud)

Description

The Olympus case gives students an opportunity to analyze the factors and unique cultural environment that led to the accounting fraud in whistle blower Michael Woodford's perspective. It also provides students insights into a traditionally- structured Japanese company to identify

The Olympus case gives students an opportunity to analyze the factors and unique cultural environment that led to the accounting fraud in whistle blower Michael Woodford's perspective. It also provides students insights into a traditionally- structured Japanese company to identify the operation style and leadership distinctions from a U.S. structured company. The case is presented from the comprehensive public record and the book How I Went from CEO to Whistleblower, written by Michael Woodford, all surrounding the Olympus fraud and insider whistleblowing. A primary question that arose when the news of the fraud emerged in the media was: Did the accounting fraud solely result from the failure of Japanese executives' leadership style? Some people think that the Olympus president Tsuyoshi Kikukawa who owned ultimate power over the company is supposed to bear the most responsibility for this issue. However, this case argues that the answer to the previous question is no. What's more important than the corrupt executives is Olympus' operational system that indulged those executives' ambition. Therefore, the case focuses on an analysis of the operating system in regard to leadership, culture, internal controls, external controls and the board of directors. This analysis addresses the failure of Olympus comprehensively rather than placing blame on a single individual. It is an opportunity for students to understand and discuss the multiple aspects of a corporate system that should have the practicable controls and functions to prevent the abuse of decision-making power as well as the illegal activity from occurring.

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Date Created
2016-12

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Is Fraud Cultural?

Description

This study examined if Hofstede's cultural dimensions are able to predict the scheme used to commit fraud and the frequency of the scheme. All six of Hofstede's cultural dimensions were applied to 9 different countries across the world. These countries

This study examined if Hofstede's cultural dimensions are able to predict the scheme used to commit fraud and the frequency of the scheme. All six of Hofstede's cultural dimensions were applied to 9 different countries across the world. These countries were selected based on the number of fraud cases that were reported in the 2016 Report to the Nations published by the Association for Certified Fraud Examiners. The theory was that Hofstede's Cultural dimensions would be able to predict the scheme that would be used to commit fraud. The results however do not support this hypothesis. There were some significant relationships between some of the schemes and Hofstede's cultural dimensions. However there were some of the schemes that had no significant relationships which could be due to the limitations of this study.

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2016-12