Matching Items (15)

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The Effects of Time Restricted Feeding on Mood

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Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial

Intermittent Fasting (IF) is defined as a cyclical eating pattern where an individual will fast for a specific increment of time, followed by caloric intake periods. Fasting is a crucial part of our ancestors’ adaptation to the stresses of famine in order to maintain mental acuity and physical abilities during food deprivation. IF influences physiological changes such as: triggers protective metabolic pathways, increases metabolic flexibility and resilience, promotes DNA repair and autophagy, increases microbiome diversity and restores the natural cyclical fluctuations of the gut, increases BDNF expression in mood regulating neuronal circuits, and enhances synaptic plasticity of the brain. Research on the underlying causes of mood disorders has linked impairments in neuroplasticity and cellular resilience to this pathophysiology, which fasting could mitigate. Depression and anxiety are reported as the top impediments to academic performance. Thus, an easily implemented treatment such as intermittent fasting may be an option for combating impaired mental health in college students. This research study tested time restricted feeding (TRF) and its impact on mood states. It was hypothesized that: if college students follow a time restricted feeding pattern, then they will be less moody due to TRF’s effects on the metabolism, brain, and gut. The study consisted of 11 college students: 5 following a four-week adherence to TRF (8am-4pm eating window) and 6 in the control group. The POMS questionnaire was used to measure mood states. The participants height, weight, BMI, body fat %, and POMS scores were tested at the beginning and end of the 4 week intervention. The results were as follows: weight p=0.112 (statistical trend), BMI p=0.058 (nearly significant), body fat % p=0.114 (statistical trend), POMS p=0.014 (statistically significant). The data suggests that following a TRF eating pattern can decrease moodiness and improve mood states.

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  • 2019-05

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Effects of Decreased Opportunity to Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Mood by Sex in Older Adults

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Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare older adults (ages 60 to 80) with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. The purpose was to

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare older adults (ages 60 to 80) with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. The purpose was to determine if reducing one's sleep by an hour each night for 12 weeks, led to worse cognition and mood over time. Study Design: The study contained two groups: older adults with their sleep restricted and older adults with their sleep un-restricted. Participants were recruited by researchers at Arizona State University and The University of Arizona by advertising in newspapers, on flyers in senior centers, and on radio stations. After rigorous screening for health conditions, current sleep patterns and depression, individuals entered the study. Participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale after two weeks of baseline, and again after treatment week 14 of the study. Likewise, males and females performed three cognitive tests after two weeks of baseline, and again after treatment week 14 of the study. These cognitive tests included Stroop Color and Word Test, Trail making and PVT. Results: The depression scale and three cognitive tests showed that there was no significant difference with cognition and mood over 14 weeks between individuals with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. Conclusions: Reducing older adult's sleep duration by an hour each night for 14 weeks does not produce negative effects, and does not provoke signs of depression or weakened cognition.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Mood Influences Working Memory Capacity

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Working memory is the cognitive system responsible for storing and maintaining information in short-term memory and retrieving cues from long-term memory. Working memory capacity (WMC) is needed for goal maintenance

Working memory is the cognitive system responsible for storing and maintaining information in short-term memory and retrieving cues from long-term memory. Working memory capacity (WMC) is needed for goal maintenance and to ignore task-irrelevant stimuli (Engle & Kane, 2003). Emotions are one type of task-irrelevant stimuli that could distract an individual from a task (Smallwood, Fitzgerald, Miles, & Phillips, 2009). There are studies that show there is a relation between emotions and working memory capacity. The direction of this relationship, though, is unclear (Kensinger, 2009). In this study, emotions served as a distractor and task performance was examined for differences in the effect of emotion depending on participants' working memory capacity. The participants watched a mood induction video, then were told to complete a complex-span working memory task. The mood induction was successful- participants watching the negative emotional video were in a less positive mood after watching the video than the participants that watched a neutral video. However, the results of the complex-span working memory task showed no significant difference in the results between participants in the negative versus neutral mood. These results may provide support to an alternative hypothesis: cognitive tasks can diminish the effects of emotions (Dillen, Heslenfeld, & Koole, 2009).

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  • 2017-05

Supplementation of Vitamin B6 and Tryptophan: The Effects on Mood States Among College Club Sport Athletes

Description

There are many studies on vitamin B6 (pyrodoxine) or tryptophan (Trp) as a way to increase mood but there are little to no studies with these two nutrients supplemented together.

There are many studies on vitamin B6 (pyrodoxine) or tryptophan (Trp) as a way to increase mood but there are little to no studies with these two nutrients supplemented together. Trp is the precursor to serotonin that requires the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). Serotonin plays a role in mood, sleep, appetite, and other wellbeing aspects and it is believed that low levels of serotonin is associated with the risk of developing depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorders. The amount of free Trp that can pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is influenced by factors such as cortisol, insulin, and competition from branch chain amino acids (BCAA). College students who exercise on a regular basis and participate in club sports may experience higher cortisol levels from stress of college and higher physical activity. Cortisol decreases the Trp levels in the plasma while BCAAs compete with Trp to pass through the BBB. Insulin promotes the passage of free Trp through the BBB. In the present study, 28 healthy active college students (21.0 ± 2.1 years, 24.5± 3.1 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: vitamin B6 (n=11), Trp (n=10), or both (n=10) (2 did not complete study). Blood serum pyridoxine levels and mood states were measured at baseline and at 4 weeks with Profile of Mood States (POMS), Depression Anxiety Stress Survey (DASS), Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), and Epworth sleep scale. In the combined sample, the total POMS score improved during the study (p=0.039) and the total DASS score tended to improve during the study (p=0.068). Thus, mean depression scores for all participants decreased during the 4-week supplementation study. However, there were no time x treatment effects noted at study completion. At baseline 18% of the participants were marginally deficient in vitamin B6 (serum pyridoxine <30nmol/L), and their total POMS score was raised 78% in comparison to participants with adequate vitamin B6 status (p=0.08). DASS scores were raised 48% in vitamin B6 deficient participants versus those with adequate vitamin B6 status (p=0.243). There were no significant changes (time or time x treatment) during the course of the study for the LOT-R or sleep scores. In summary, vitamin B6 deficiency in college student athletes was remarkably high (18%) compared to the national average reported by the CDC in 2012 (10.5%), and participants with vitamin B6 deficiency displayed heightened unfavorable mood states. Moreover, supplementation with vitamin B6, tryptophan, or vitamin B6 and tryptophan improved mood state in college student athletes, but there were no differences between treatments.

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  • 2016-05

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Do Mood and Romantic Relationship Status Influence Attraction?

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Females' attractiveness ratings of male faces have often been attributed to the male faces' physical characteristics. Multiple studies have determined that male faces are perceived as more attractive when they

Females' attractiveness ratings of male faces have often been attributed to the male faces' physical characteristics. Multiple studies have determined that male faces are perceived as more attractive when they show the following characteristics: masculine and feminine features, facial age, neotenous signs, symmetry, and averageness. However, certain traits of the rater, such as mood and romantic relationship status, also influence the perceived attractiveness of those faces. This study was designed to address whether female raters' mood and romantic relationship status were associated with their ratings of men in photographs. We recorded the romantic relationship status and current mood of 115 heterosexual females, who then rated ten male photographs on their: likeability, datability, physical attractiveness, sexual desirability, and perceived age of the face. Four separate one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were carried out to test the differences in ratings (i.e., physical attractiveness, datability, likability, and sexual desirability) between single and partnered women. Also, among partnered participants, correlations were calculated between relationship happiness and photo ratings. Finally, correlations between attractiveness ratings and mood-related variables were calculated. Results suggested that the participants' mood was associated with the photo ratings. These findings are consistent with previous literature suggesting that mood can influence people's perception of others. We can then infer that physical traits are not the only defining factor of attractiveness.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Effect of Vinegar Consumption on Mood State

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The various health benefits of vinegar ingestion have been studied extensively in the<br/>literature. Moreover, emerging research suggests vinegar may also have an effect on mental<br/>health. Beneficial effects of certain diets

The various health benefits of vinegar ingestion have been studied extensively in the<br/>literature. Moreover, emerging research suggests vinegar may also have an effect on mental<br/>health. Beneficial effects of certain diets on mood have been reported, however, the mechanisms<br/>are unknown. The current study aimed to determine if vinegar ingestion positively affects mood<br/>state in healthy young adults. This was a randomized, single blinded controlled trial consisting of<br/>25 subjects. Participants were randomly assigned to either the vinegar group (consumed 2<br/>tablespoons of liquid vinegar diluted in one cup water twice daily with meals) or the control<br/>group (consumed one vinegar pill daily with a meal), and the intervention lasted 4 weeks.<br/>Subjects completed mood questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. Results showed a significant<br/>improvement in CES-D and POMS-Depression scores for the vinegar group compared to the<br/>control. This study suggests that vinegar ingestion may improve depressive symptoms in healthy<br/>young adults.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Effects of novel functional food on wellness indicators

Description

With obesity and metabolic diseases reaching epidemic levels, it is important to find ways to increase physical activity and improve diet. Previous studies have shown that improvements in mood can

With obesity and metabolic diseases reaching epidemic levels, it is important to find ways to increase physical activity and improve diet. Previous studies have shown that improvements in mood can increase desire to perform physical activity, and that vitamin C intake is linked to improvements in mood. Based on this, two hypotheses were formed and tested to investigate the effect on physical activity levels and mood states from vitamin C supplementation at a dose of one gram per day in the form of a novel functional food. Thirty-one college students or faculty at Arizona State University were screened from a pool of applicants and placed into either a vitamin C or placebo group; all participants received the novel functional food to eat daily for four weeks. Serum levels of vitamin C, weight, height, BMI, body fat percentage, mood, and physical activity were measured before and after the functional food intervention. Vitamin C changed significantly through the course of the study in the experimental group. Baseline data for participants showed a positive correlation between vitamin C status and vigor, and a negative correlation between vitamin C status and weight and BMI. Physical activity was not related to vitamin C status, according to baseline data, and it did not significantly change over the course of the study. The results indicate that variance in BMI can be attributed to vitamin C status, but the study should be refined and tested again.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

Emotion Regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Neural Mechanisms and Mood Symptoms

Description

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly comorbid with mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Previous research suggests difficulties in emotion regulation to be concordant with experiencing these comorbid symptoms.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly comorbid with mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Previous research suggests difficulties in emotion regulation to be concordant with experiencing these comorbid symptoms. Understanding the neural correlates of emotion regulation in ASD and relationships with mood symptoms could provide insights for effective treatments. We employed an existing functional MRI paradigm to assess neural activation during an emotional regulation task in adults with ASD, and correlate activated regions with self-reported measures of depression and anxiety. We found the following regions to be significantly associated with emotion regulation (family-wise error corrected p<0.05): the bilateral insula, anterior cingulate, middle cingulate, precentral gyrus, angular gyrus, left dorsolateral PFC, right caudate/putamen, and left medial PFC. We found anxiety, but not depression, symptoms were negatively correlated with activation in the anterior cingulate, left insula, and left putamen, and showed a moderate relationship to the amygdala. These results expand current understanding of ASD and emotion regulation and suggest targets for future clinical intervention.

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  • 2019-05

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The Effects of Vitamin B6 Supplementation on Mood States in College Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

Description

Oral contraceptives are one of the most frequently used forms of birth control among young women. However, research has shown that this type of medication can contribute to negative changes

Oral contraceptives are one of the most frequently used forms of birth control among young women. However, research has shown that this type of medication can contribute to negative changes in mood and diminished vitamin status. In particular, women taking oral contraceptives are at an increased risk of vitamin B6 deficiency due to changes in enzyme activity with estrogen intake. Depressed mood is one of the known symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency as this vitamin acts as an essential cofactor in converting tryptophan to the neurotransmitter, serotonin. Lack of adequate levels of vitamin B6 therefore contribute to decreased production of serotonin and subsequent changes in mood, including symptoms of depression. With vitamin B6 being the most common nutrient deficiency, and the ever increasing prevalence of depression in the United States, especially among young adults, it is crucial that researchers investigate ways to mitigate both of these undesirable side effects. Current research on the topic fails to directly connect supplementation of vitamin B6 to positive changes in mood in oral contraceptive users.

This 12-week long double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial examined the effects of daily supplementation of vitamin B6 as 100 mg of pyridoxine hydrochloride, on mood states in 8 healthy college women (18-25 y) that use combined oral contraceptives. Vitamin status was assessed via plasma pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP). Plasma PLP levels significantly increased by >193% (p=0.003) with daily supplementation of 100 mg B6 over a four week period. Mood changes with supplementation were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Although a small improvement in the POMS depression sub score was observed after 4 weeks of vitamin B6 supplementation (14.7%), the changes were insignificant (p>0.05). Furthermore, total mood disturbance scores did not significantly change with either the placebo or supplement periods. While mood states were not improved, a significant decrease in the presence of depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory was observed after vitamin B6 supplementation, compared to placebo (p=0.047). The results of this study necessitate further investigation into the use of B6 supplementation as a means of reducing negative mood changes in oral contraceptive users.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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A concept-based approach to teaching Spanish mood

Description

This study investigates the effectiveness of the use of Concept-Based Instruction (CBI) to facilitate the acquisition of Spanish mood distinctions by second semester second language learners of Spanish. The study

This study investigates the effectiveness of the use of Concept-Based Instruction (CBI) to facilitate the acquisition of Spanish mood distinctions by second semester second language learners of Spanish. The study focuses on the development of Spanish mood choice and the types of explanations (Rule-of-Thumb vs. Concept-based) used by five students before and after being exposed to Concept-Based Instruction regarding the choice of Spanish mood following various modalities .The students in this study were presented with a pedagogical treatment on Spanish mood choice that included general theoretical concepts based on Gal'perin's (1969, 1992) didactic models and acts of verbalization, which form part of a Concept-Based pedagogical approach. In order to ascertain the effectiveness of the use of concept-based tools to promote the ability to use Spanish mood appropriately over time, a pre and post-test was administered to the group in which students were asked to respond to prompts containing modalities that elicit the indicative and subjunctive moods, indicate their level of confidence in their response, and verbalize in writing a reason for their choice. The development of these abilities in learners exposed to CBI was assessed by comparing pre and post-test scores examining both forms and explanations for the indicative and subjunctive modality prompts given. Results showed that students continued to rely on Rule-of-Thumb explanations of mood choice but they did expand their use of conceptually-based reasoning. Although the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the results indicate that most students did improve their ability to make appropriate mood choices (forms and explanations) after the CBI treatment, the increased use of conceptually-based explanations for their mood choices led to both correct and incorrect responses.

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Date Created
  • 2013