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Tell It to the Frogs: Fukushima’s nuclear disaster and its impact on the Japanese Tree Frog

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“Tell It to the Frogs: Fukushima’s nuclear disaster and its impact on the Japanese Tree Frog” is a representation of the work from Giraudeau et. al’s “Carotenoid distribution in wild Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) exposed to ionizing radiation in

“Tell It to the Frogs: Fukushima’s nuclear disaster and its impact on the Japanese Tree Frog” is a representation of the work from Giraudeau et. al’s “Carotenoid distribution in wild Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) exposed to ionizing radiation in Fukushima.” This paper looked to see if carotenoid levels in the tree frog’s vocal sac, liver, and blood were affected by radiation from Fukushima’s power plant explosion. Without carotenoids, the pigment that gives the frogs their orange color on their necks, their courtship practices would be impacted and would not be as able to show off their fitness to potential mates. The artwork inspired by this research displayed the tree frog’s degradation over time due to radiation, starting with normal life and ending with their death and open on the table. The sculptures also pinpoint where the carotenoids were being measured with a brilliant orange glaze. Through ceramic hand building, the artist created larger than life frogs in hopes to elicit curiosity about them and their plight. While the paper did not conclude any changes in the frog’s physiology after 18 months of exposure, there are still questions that are left unanswered. Why did these frogs not have any reaction? Could there be any effects after more time has passed? Is radiation leakage as big of a problem as previously thought? The only way to get the answers to these questions is to be aware of these amphibians, the circumstances that led them to be involved, and continued research on them and radiation.

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2019-05

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Investigating Antimicrobial Controls for Bat White-Nose Syndrome

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Across large areas of eastern and midwestern North America, a severe reduction in multiple populations of bat species has been observed as the result of the emerging fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS is caused by a psychrophilic (i.e. cold

Across large areas of eastern and midwestern North America, a severe reduction in multiple populations of bat species has been observed as the result of the emerging fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS is caused by a psychrophilic (i.e. cold loving) fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), that invades the skin of bats during hibernation. Recent studies have shown that during hibernation, bats have decreased immune system activity which would suggest increased susceptibility to infection. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important component of the innate immune system and are expressed constitutively within all tissues that serve as barriers against infection. Killing pathogens at the level of the skin could prevent the need for more complex immune responses likely inhibited during hibernation, and therefore AMPs could be critical in combating infection by Pd and reducing population loss of susceptible bat species. In this investigation, the fungicidal activity of commercially available AMPs derived from the skin of multiple taxa, including amphibians, catfish, and humans were compared in order to study immunity at the level of the skin. Additionally, our aim was to create optimal methods for a low-cost antimicrobial-assay protocol that would provide quantitative results. We found that killing abilities at various concentrations of dermaseptin S-1 against Ca ATCC 10231 were consistent with literature values, while our values for magainin 2 and parasin 1 were far from the values previously recorded by other studies. It is possible that some differences can be accounted for by the difference in antimicrobial assay procedures, but our findings suggest potential differences to the well-known killing abilities of certain peptides nonetheless. Overall, the protocol established for the antimicrobial assays using serial dilutions and Sabouraud Dextrose plates was successful.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Investigating Antimicrobial Controls for Bat White-Nose Syndrome

Description

Across large areas of eastern and midwestern North America, a severe reduction in multiple populations of bat species has been observed as the result of the emerging fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS is caused by a psychrophilic (i.e. cold

Across large areas of eastern and midwestern North America, a severe reduction in multiple populations of bat species has been observed as the result of the emerging fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). WNS is caused by a psychrophilic (i.e. cold loving) fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), that invades the skin of bats during hibernation. Recent studies have shown that during hibernation, bats have decreased immune system activity which would suggest increased susceptibility to infection. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an important component of the innate immune system and are expressed constitutively within all tissues that serve as barriers against infection. Killing pathogens at the level of the skin could prevent the need for more complex immune responses likely inhibited during hibernation, and therefore AMPs could be critical in combating infection by Pd and reducing population loss of susceptible bat species. In this investigation, the fungicidal activity of commercially available AMPs derived from the skin of multiple taxa, including amphibians, catfish, and humans were compared in order to study immunity at the level of the skin. Additionally, our aim was to create optimal methods for a low-cost antimicrobial-assay protocol that would provide quantitative results. We found that killing abilities at various concentrations of dermaseptin S-1 against Ca ATCC 10231 were consistent with literature values, while our values for magainin 2 and parasin 1 were far from the values previously recorded by other studies. It is possible that some differences can be accounted for by the difference in antimicrobial assay procedures, but our findings suggest potential differences to the well-known killing abilities of certain peptides nonetheless. Overall, the protocol established for the antimicrobial assays using serial dilutions and Sabouraud Dextrose plates was successful.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

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Investigating the Skin Immune Proteome of the White-Nose Syndrome Resistant Gray Bat, Myotis grisescens

Description

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal infection caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) which was first observed in the United States in 2006. Pd infects bats during hibernation and leads to the development of cutaneous lesions and behavioral changes that

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal infection caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) which was first observed in the United States in 2006. Pd infects bats during hibernation and leads to the development of cutaneous lesions and behavioral changes that can result in the animal's death. This study generated the first complete bat skin proteome for the WNS resistant gray bat (Myotis grisescens) to optimize sample preparation methods and identify immune proteins that may signal resistance. Wing tissue was collected from a female gray bat and processed in a Barocycler using 4M or 8M urea followed by an in-gel trypsin digestion of pooled samples and processing of separate samples without digestion specifically to capture and identify small antimicrobial peptides. Both undigested and digested samples were analyzed using a Thermo Fisher LTQ Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer and interpreted using PEAKS software. A total of 29 immune proteins were identified including the antimicrobial peptide dermcidin. This method will be applied to a larger range of samples from five species variably impacted by WNS to compare skin proteomes with the aim of identifying immune proteins that are responsible for resistance at the barrier where Pd invades.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Expressing Equilibrium

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The study of broad therapeutic advantages of dance is a growing field of interdisciplinary study. Yet, direct health benefits of dance from a molecular standpoint are still largely unknown. Literature review of dance performance displays in birds as well as

The study of broad therapeutic advantages of dance is a growing field of interdisciplinary study. Yet, direct health benefits of dance from a molecular standpoint are still largely unknown. Literature review of dance performance displays in birds as well as other creatures and use of creative tools to analyze the diverse, lifelong experiences of dancers helped shed some light on the subject. Although dance experience exposes harms tied to the social constraints of how the form is experiences buried under joyful takeaways of dance, research supports overall health benefits from moderate amounts of dance maintained in perfect equilibrium.

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2022-05