Matching Items (13)

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An IoT Solution to Air Quality Monitoring

Description

Pollution is an increasing problem around the world, and one of the main forms it takes is air pollution. Air pollution, from oxides and dioxides to particulate matter, continues to

Pollution is an increasing problem around the world, and one of the main forms it takes is air pollution. Air pollution, from oxides and dioxides to particulate matter, continues to contribute to millions of deaths each year, which is more than the next three leading causes of environment-related death combined. Plus, the problem is only growing as industrial plants, factories, and transportation continues to rapidly increase across the globe. Those most affected include less developed countries and individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions. Although many citizens know about this issue, it is often unclear what times and locations are worst in terms of pollutant concentration as it can vary on the time of day, local activity, and other variable factors. As a result, citizens lack the knowledge and resources to properly combat or avoid air pollution, as well as the data and evidence to support any sort of regulatory change. Many companies and organizations have tried to address this through Air Quality Indexes (AQIs) but are not focused enough to help the everyday citizen, and often fail to include many significant pollutants. Thus, we sought to address this issue in a cost-effective way through creating a network of IoT (Internet of Things) devices and deploying them in a select area of Tempe, Arizona. We utilized Arduino Microprocessors and Wireless Radio Frequency Transceivers to send and receive air pollution data in real time. Then, displayed this data in such a way that it could be released to the public via web or mobile app. Furthermore, the product is cheap enough to be reproduced and sold in bulk as well as scaled and customized to be compatible with dozens of different air quality sensors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Applicability of an Athletic Shoe Comprising an In-Shoe Force Measurement System

Description

Having the proper biomechanical and neuromuscular kinematics while performing an athletic motion is essential for athletes. Deviations from proper form in execution of the kinetic chain of an athletic movement

Having the proper biomechanical and neuromuscular kinematics while performing an athletic motion is essential for athletes. Deviations from proper form in execution of the kinetic chain of an athletic movement may result in suboptimal performance and oftentimes an elevated likelihood of injury. The solutions currently available to athletes to account for digression from proper form are limited to sight and feel analysis of movement by the athletes and coaches and basic medical and athletic analysis equipment that is unsuitable for real-time analysis, the rigor and speed of dynamic athletic motions, and in-field use. The solution proposed herein is one of an in-shoe force measurement and foot positioning system designed to measure the ground reaction force generated by and alignment of an athlete's feet during an athletic motion. Research into various sports has found that the feet play a foundational role in proper execution of the kinetic chain, wherein the alignment, positioning, force generation, and timing of the feet may dictate proper execution of subsequent segments in the kinetic chain. The goal of the present design is to provide athletes with a solution to allow for real-time kinematic analysis of athletic motions using an in-shoe force measurement and foot positioning system. An understanding into the compensatory effect of foot misalignment, mismatched timing, and under or overcompensated ground reaction force generation by the feet on ensuing segments of the kinetic chain in conjunction with the present design can allow for athletes to measure and determine their degree of accuracy in form execution and to predict potential injuries resulting from deviations in form. Our design of an athletic shoe comprising an in-shoe force measurement system provides a dynamic solution to sports-related injuries presently unavailable to athletes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Memory Inspection Resistant Rootkit: An implementation and analysis

Description

The purpose of this project was to implement and analyze a new proposed rootkit that claims a greater level of stealth by hiding in cache. Today, the vast majority of

The purpose of this project was to implement and analyze a new proposed rootkit that claims a greater level of stealth by hiding in cache. Today, the vast majority of embedded devices are powered by ARM processors. To protect their processors from attacks, ARM introduced a hardware security extension known as TrustZone. It provides an isolated execution environment within the embedded device that enables us to run various memory integrity and malware detection tools to identify possible breaches in security to the normal world. Although TrustZone provides this additional layer of security, it also adds another layer of complexity, and thus comes with its own set of vulnerabilities. This new rootkit identifies and exploits a cache incoherence in the ARM device as a result of TrustZone. The newly proposed rootkit, called CacheKit, takes advantage of this cache incoherence to avoid memory introspection from tools in secure world. We implement CacheKit on the i.MX53 development board, which features a single ARM Cortex A8 processor, to analyze the limitations and vulnerabilities described in the original paper. We set up the Linux environment on the computer to be able to cross-compile for the development board which will be running the FreeScale android 2.3.4 platform with a 2.6.33 Linux kernel. The project is implemented as a kernel module that once installed on the board can manipulate cache as desired to conceal the rootkit. The module exploits the fact that in TrustZone, the secure world does not have access to the normal world cache. First, a technique known as Cache-asRAM is used to ensure that the rootkit is loaded only into cache of the normal world where it can avoid detection from the secure world. Then, we employ the cache maintenance instructions and resisters provided in the cp15 coprocessor to keep the code persistent in cache. Furthermore, the cache lines are mapped to unused I/O address space so that if cache content is flushed to RAM for inspection, the data is simply lost. This ensures that even if the rootkit were to be flushed into memory, any trace of the malicious code would be lost. CacheKit prevents defenders from analyzing the code and destroys any forensic evidence. This provides attackers with a new and powerful tool that is excellent for certain scenarios that were previously thought to be secure. Finally, we determine the limitations of the prototype to determine possible areas for future growth and research into the security of networked embedded devices.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Wi-Fi Enabled Message Transmission: An Implementation

Description

The Internet of Things has spread Wi-Fi connectivity to household and business devices everywhere. It is important that we understand IoT's risks and capabilities as its popularity continues to grow,

The Internet of Things has spread Wi-Fi connectivity to household and business devices everywhere. It is important that we understand IoT's risks and capabilities as its popularity continues to grow, and that we recognize new and exciting uses for it. In this project, the ESP8266 Wi-Fi controller, powered by a lithium battery, is used to transmit messages from a user's browser or mobile phone to an OLED display. The ESP8266 is a system on a chip (SOC) which boasts impressive features such as full TCP/IP stack, 1 MB of flash memory, and a 32-bit CPU. A web server is started on the ESP8266 which listens at a specific port and relays any strings from the client back to the display, acting as a simple notification system for a busy individual such as a professor. The difficulties with this project stemmed from the security protocol of Arizona State University's Wi-Fi network and from the limitations of the Wi-Fi chip itself. Several solutions are suggested, such as utilizing a personal cellular broadband router and polling a database for stored strings through a service such as Data.Sparkfun.com.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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PRODUCTIZING EMBEDDED SYSTEMS PROJECT BOARDS AND DEMONSTRATING EXPANDABILITY

Description

The purpose of this project was to create a modular embedded systems platform that would provide a hands-on lab experience for students learning about embedded systems protocols. The system would

The purpose of this project was to create a modular embedded systems platform that would provide a hands-on lab experience for students learning about embedded systems protocols. The system would be designed to be modular, expandable, and productizable. Its modularity would eliminate errors in the design and make the entire system more robust. It would also be expandable, which means additional project boards could be created in the future without requiring a complete redesign of the system. And finally, productizing the entire system would allow it to be sold to other universities who may have a similar program that would benefit from a system such as the OCTOPUS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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From Formal Requirement Analysis to Testing and Monitoring of Cyber-Physical Systems

Description

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are being used in many safety-critical applications. Due to the important role in virtually every aspect of human life, it is crucial to make sure that a

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are being used in many safety-critical applications. Due to the important role in virtually every aspect of human life, it is crucial to make sure that a CPS works properly before its deployment. However, formal verification of CPS is a computationally hard problem. Therefore, lightweight verification methods such as testing and monitoring of the CPS are considered in the industry. The formal representation of the CPS requirements is a challenging task. In addition, checking the system outputs with respect to requirements is a computationally complex problem. In this dissertation, these problems for the verification of CPS are addressed. The first method provides a formal requirement analysis framework which can find logical issues in the requirements and help engineers to correct the requirements. Also, a method is provided to detect tests which vacuously satisfy the requirement because of the requirement structure. This method is used to improve the test generation framework for CPS. Finally, two runtime verification algorithms are developed for off-line/on-line monitoring with respect to real-time requirements. These monitoring algorithms are computationally efficient, and they can be used in practical applications for monitoring CPS with low runtime overhead.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Test-based falsification and conformance testing for cyber-physical systems

Description

In this dissertation, two problems are addressed in the verification and control of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS):

1) Falsification: given a CPS, and a property of interest that the CPS must satisfy

In this dissertation, two problems are addressed in the verification and control of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS):

1) Falsification: given a CPS, and a property of interest that the CPS must satisfy under all allowed operating conditions, does the CPS violate, i.e. falsify, the property?

2) Conformance testing: given a model of a CPS, and an implementation of that CPS on an embedded platform, how can we characterize the properties satisfied by the implementation, given the properties satisfied by the model?

Both problems arise in the context of Model-Based Design (MBD) of CPS: in MBD, the designers start from a set of formal requirements that the system-to-be-designed must satisfy.

A first model of the system is created.

Because it may not be possible to formally verify the CPS model against the requirements, falsification tries to verify whether the model satisfies the requirements by searching for behavior that violates them.

In the first part of this dissertation, I present improved methods for finding falsifying behaviors of CPS when properties are expressed in Metric Temporal Logic (MTL).

These methods leverage the notion of robust semantics of MTL formulae: if a falsifier exists, it is in the neighborhood of local minimizers of the robustness function.

The proposed algorithms compute descent directions of the robustness function in the space of initial conditions and input signals, and provably converge to local minima of the robustness function.

The initial model of the CPS is then iteratively refined by modeling previously ignored phenomena, adding more functionality, etc., with each refinement resulting in a new model.

Many of the refinements in the MBD process described above do not provide an a priori guaranteed relation between the successive models.

Thus, the second problem above arises: how to quantify the distance between two successive models M_n and M_{n+1}?

If M_n has been verified to satisfy the specification, can it be guaranteed that M_{n+1} also satisfies the same, or some closely related, specification?

This dissertation answers both questions for a general class of CPS, and properties expressed in MTL.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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A Study on the Analysis of Treadmill Perturbation Data for the Design of Active Ankle Foot Orthosis to Prevent Falls and Gait Rehabilitation

Description

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention report around 29,668 United States residents aged greater than 65 years had died as a result of a fall in 2016.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention report around 29,668 United States residents aged greater than 65 years had died as a result of a fall in 2016. Other injuries like wrist fractures, hip fractures, and head injuries occur as a result of a fall. Certain groups of people are more prone to experience falls than others, one of which being individuals with stroke. The two most common issues with individuals with strokes are ankle weakness and foot drop, both of which contribute to falls. To mitigate this issue, the most popular clinical remedy given to these users is thermoplastic Ankle Foot Orthosis. These AFO's help improving gait velocity, stride length, and cadence. However, studies have shown that a continuous restraint on the ankle harms the compensatory stepping response and forward propulsion. It has been shown in previous studies that compensatory stepping and forward propulsion are crucial for the user's ability to recover from postural perturbations. Hence, there is a need for active devices that can supply a plantarflexion during the push-off and dorsiflexion during the swing phase of gait. Although advancements in the orthotic research have shown major improvements in supporting the ankle joint for rehabilitation, there is a lack of available active devices that can help impaired users in daily activities. In this study, our primary focus is to build an unobtrusive, cost-effective, and easy to wear active device for gait rehabilitation and fall prevention in individuals who are at risk. The device will be using a double-acting cylinder that can be easily incorporated into the user's footwear using a novel custom-designed powered ankle brace. The device will use Inertial Measurement Units to measure kinematic parameters of the lower body and a custom control algorithm to actuate the device based on the measurements. The study can be used to advance the field of gait assistance, rehabilitation, and potentially fall prevention of individuals with lower-limb impairments through the use of Active Ankle Foot Orthosis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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WCET-aware scratchpad memory management for hard real-time systems

Description

Cyber-physical systems and hard real-time systems have strict timing constraints that specify deadlines until which tasks must finish their execution. Missing a deadline can cause unexpected outcome or endanger human

Cyber-physical systems and hard real-time systems have strict timing constraints that specify deadlines until which tasks must finish their execution. Missing a deadline can cause unexpected outcome or endanger human lives in safety-critical applications, such as automotive or aeronautical systems. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to obtain and optimize a safe upper bound of each task’s execution time or the worst-case execution time (WCET), to guarantee the absence of any missed deadline. Unfortunately, conventional microarchitectural components, such as caches and branch predictors, are only optimized for average-case performance and often make WCET analysis complicated and pessimistic. Caches especially have a large impact on the worst-case performance due to expensive off- chip memory accesses involved in cache miss handling. In this regard, software-controlled scratchpad memories (SPMs) have become a promising alternative to caches. An SPM is a raw SRAM, controlled only by executing data movement instructions explicitly at runtime, and such explicit control facilitates static analyses to obtain safe and tight upper bounds of WCETs. SPM management techniques, used in compilers targeting an SPM-based processor, determine how to use a given SPM space by deciding where to insert data movement instructions and what operations to perform at those program locations. This dissertation presents several management techniques for program code and stack data, which aim to optimize the WCETs of a given program. The proposed code management techniques include optimal allocation algorithms and a polynomial-time heuristic for allocating functions to the SPM space, with or without the use of abstraction of SPM regions, and a heuristic for splitting functions into smaller partitions. The proposed stack data management technique, on the other hand, finds an optimal set of program locations to evict and restore stack frames to avoid stack overflows, when the call stack resides in a size-limited SPM. In the evaluation, the WCETs of various benchmarks including real-world automotive applications are statically calculated for SPMs and caches in several different memory configurations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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CacheLight: A Lightweight Approach for Preventing Malicious Use of Cache Locking Mechanisms

Description

With the rise of the Internet of Things, embedded systems have become an integral part of life and can be found almost anywhere. Their prevalence and increased interconnectivity has made

With the rise of the Internet of Things, embedded systems have become an integral part of life and can be found almost anywhere. Their prevalence and increased interconnectivity has made them a prime target for malicious attacks. Today, the vast majority of embedded devices are powered by ARM processors. To protect their processors from attacks, ARM introduced a hardware security extension known as TrustZone. It provides an isolated execution environment within the embedded device in which to deploy various memory integrity and malware detection tools.

Even though Secure World can monitor the Normal World, attackers can attempt to bypass the security measures to retain control of a compromised system. CacheKit is a new type of rootkit that exploits such a vulnerability in the ARM architecture to hide in Normal World cache from memory introspection tools running in Secure World by exploiting cache locking mechanisms. If left unchecked, ARM processors that provide hardware assisted cache locking for performance and time-critical applications in real-time and embedded systems would be completely vulnerable to this undetectable and untraceable attack. Therefore, a new approach is needed to ensure the correct use of such mechanisms and prevent malicious code from being hidden in the cache.

CacheLight is a lightweight approach that leverages the TrustZone and Virtualization extensions of the ARM architecture to allow the system to continue to securely provide these hardware facilities to users while preventing attackers from exploiting them. CacheLight restricts the ability to lock the cache to the Secure World of the processor such that the Normal World can still request certain memory to be locked into the cache by the secure operating system (OS) through a Secure Monitor Call (SMC). This grants the secure OS the power to verify and validate the information that will be locked in the requested cache way thereby ensuring that any data that remains in the cache will not be inconsistent with what exists in main memory for inspection. Malicious attempts to hide data can be prevented and recovered for analysis while legitimate requests can still generate valid entries in the cache.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018