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Experimental study of MOS capacitors as wireless radiation dose sensors

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The RADiation sensitive Field Effect Transistor (RADFET) has been conventionally used to measure radiation dose levels. These dose sensors are calibrated in such a way that a shift in threshold voltage, due to a build-up of oxide-trapped charge, can be

The RADiation sensitive Field Effect Transistor (RADFET) has been conventionally used to measure radiation dose levels. These dose sensors are calibrated in such a way that a shift in threshold voltage, due to a build-up of oxide-trapped charge, can be used to estimate the radiation dose. In order to estimate the radiation dose level using RADFET, a wired readout circuit is necessary. Using the same principle of oxide-trapped charge build-up, but by monitoring the change in capacitance instead of threshold voltage, a wireless dose sensor can be developed. This RADiation sensitive CAPacitor (RADCAP) mounted on a resonant patch antenna can then become a wireless dose sensor. From the resonant frequency, the capacitance can be extracted which can be mapped back to estimate the radiation dose level. The capacitor acts as both radiation dose sensor and resonator element in the passive antenna loop. Since the MOS capacitor is used in passive state, characterizing various parameters that affect the radiation sensitivity is essential. Oxide processing technique, choice of insulator material, and thickness of the insulator, critically affect the dose response of the sensor. A thicker oxide improves the radiation sensitivity but reduces the dynamic range of dose levels for which the sensor can be used. The oxide processing scheme primarily determines the interface trap charge and oxide-trapped charge development; controlling this parameter is critical to building a better dose sensor.

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Date Created
2010

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Radiation sensing using chalcogenide glass materials

Description

The dissolution of metal layers such as silver into chalcogenide glass layers such as germanium selenide changes the resistivity of the metal and chalcogenide films by a great extent. It is known that the incorporation of the metal can be

The dissolution of metal layers such as silver into chalcogenide glass layers such as germanium selenide changes the resistivity of the metal and chalcogenide films by a great extent. It is known that the incorporation of the metal can be achieved by ultra violet light exposure or thermal processes. In this work, the use of metal dissolution by exposure to gamma radiation has been explored for radiation sensor applications. Test structures were designed and a process flow was developed for prototype sensor fabrication. The test structures were designed such that sensitivity to radiation could be studied. The focus is on the effect of gamma rays as well as ultra violet light on silver dissolution in germanium selenide (Ge30Se70) chalcogenide glass. Ultra violet radiation testing was used prior to gamma exposure to assess the basic mechanism. The test structures were electrically characterized prior to and post irradiation to assess resistance change due to metal dissolution. A change in resistance was observed post irradiation and was found to be dependent on the radiation dose. The structures were also characterized using atomic force microscopy and roughness measurements were made prior to and post irradiation. A change in roughness of the silver films on Ge30Se70 was observed following exposure. This indicated the loss of continuity of the film which causes the increase in silver film resistance following irradiation. Recovery of initial resistance in the structures was also observed after the radiation stress was removed. This recovery was explained with photo-stimulated deposition of silver from the chalcogenide at room temperature confirmed with the re-appearance of silver dendrites on the chalcogenide surface. The results demonstrate that it is possible to use the metal dissolution effect in radiation sensing applications.

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Date Created
2012

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Design and analysis of a dual supply class H audio amplifier

Description

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to

Efficiency of components is an ever increasing area of importance to portable applications, where a finite battery means finite operating time. Higher efficiency devices need to be designed that don't compromise on the performance that the consumer has come to expect. Class D amplifiers deliver on the goal of increased efficiency, but at the cost of distortion. Class AB amplifiers have low efficiency, but high linearity. By modulating the supply voltage of a Class AB amplifier to make a Class H amplifier, the efficiency can increase while still maintaining the Class AB level of linearity. A 92dB Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) Class AB amplifier and a Class H amplifier were designed in a 0.24um process for portable audio applications. Using a multiphase buck converter increased the efficiency of the Class H amplifier while still maintaining a fast response time to respond to audio frequencies. The Class H amplifier had an efficiency above the Class AB amplifier by 5-7% from 5-30mW of output power without affecting the total harmonic distortion (THD) at the design specifications. The Class H amplifier design met all design specifications and showed performance comparable to the designed Class AB amplifier across 1kHz-20kHz and 0.01mW-30mW. The Class H design was able to output 30mW into 16Ohms without any increase in THD. This design shows that Class H amplifiers merit more research into their potential for increasing efficiency of audio amplifiers and that even simple designs can give significant increases in efficiency without compromising linearity.

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Date Created
2013