Matching Items (16)

132606-Thumbnail Image.png

Piloerection Sensor: Insight into Autonomic Function

Description

Piloerection (known as goosebumps) is mediated by activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors within the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. The study of piloerection is important in multiple fields, from

Piloerection (known as goosebumps) is mediated by activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors within the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. The study of piloerection is important in multiple fields, from emotion studies to nervous system pathology. This makes piloerection particularly relevant to emotions research. Despite wide-ranging applications, current methods for measuring piloerection are laborious and qualitative. The goal of this study is to build a wearable piloerection sensor through the use of straight-line lasers and photoresistors. The study analyzed methods of detecting and measuring goosebumps, and applied the method of laser scattering as a detection method. This device was designed and tested against a population of seven Arizona State University students. Goosebumps were elicited through conditions of cold, and video clips meant to elicit emotions of awe and sadness. Piloerection was then quantified through two controls of self-identification and camera recording, as well as the new detection method. These were then compared together, and it was found that subjective methods of determining goosebumps did not correlate well with objective measurements, but that the two objective measurements correlated well with one another. This shows that the technique of laser scattering can be used to detect goosebumps and further developments on this new detection method will be made. Moreover, the presence of uncorrelated subjective measurements further shows the need for an objective measurement of piloerection, while also bringing into question other factors that may be confused with the feeling of piloerection, such as chills or shivers. This study further reaffirmed previous studies showing a positive correlation between intense emotions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

156032-Thumbnail Image.png

Hydrogel Nanosensors for Colorimetric Detection and Dosimetry in Proton Beam Radiotherapy

Description

Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment approach that uses focused proton beams for tumor ablation. A key advantage of this approach over conventional photon radiotherapy (XRT) is

Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment approach that uses focused proton beams for tumor ablation. A key advantage of this approach over conventional photon radiotherapy (XRT) is the unique dose deposition characteristics of protons, resulting in superior healthy tissue sparing. This results in fewer unwanted side effects and improved outcomes for patients. Current available dosimeters are intrinsic, complex and expensive; hence cannot be used to determine the dose delivered to the tumor routinely. Here, we report a hydrogel based plasmonic nanosensor for measurements of clinical doses in ranges between 2-4 GyRBE. In this nanosensor, gold ions, encapsulated in a hydrogel, are reduced to gold nanoparticles following irradiation with proton beams. Formation of gold nanoparticles renders a color change to the originally colorless hydrogel. The intensity of the color can be used to calibrate the hydrogel nanosensor in order to quantify different radiation doses employed during treatment. The potential of this nanosensor for clinical translation was demonstrated using an anthropomorphic phantom mimicking a clinical radiotherapy session. The simplicity of fabrication, detection range in the fractionated radiotherapy regime and ease of detection with translational potential makes this a first-in-kind plasmonic colorimetric nanosensor for applications in clinical proton beam therapy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

149631-Thumbnail Image.png

Environmental sensing applications of zinc oxide based film bulk acoustic resonator

Description

Different environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), relative humidity (RH) and the presence of reducing gases (acetone and ethanol), play an important role in the daily life of human

Different environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), relative humidity (RH) and the presence of reducing gases (acetone and ethanol), play an important role in the daily life of human beings. UV is very important in a number of areas, such as astronomy, resin curing of polymeric materials, combustion engineering, water purification, flame detection and biological effects with more recent proposals like early missile plume detection, secure space-to-space communications and pollution monitoring. RH is a very common parameter in the environment. It is essential not only for human comfort, but also for a broad spectrum of industries and technologies. There is a substantial interest in the development of RH sensors for applications in monitoring moisture level at home, in clean rooms, cryogenic processes, medical and food science, and so on. The concentration of acetone and other ketone bodies in the exhaled air can serve as an express noninvasive diagnosis of ketosis. Meanwhile, driving under the influence of alcohol is a serious traffic violation and this kind of deviant behavior causes many accidents and deaths on the highway. Therefore, the detection of ethanol in breath is usually used as a quick and reliable screening method for the sobriety checkpoint. Traditionally, semiconductor metal oxide sensors are the major candidates employed in the sensing applications mentioned above. However, they suffer from the low sensitivity, poor selectivity and huge power consumption. In this dissertation, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) was developed to monitor UV, RH, acetone and ethanol in the environment. FBAR generally consists of a sputtered piezoelectric thin film (ZnO/AlN) sandwiched between two electrodes. It has been well developed both as filters and as high sensitivity mass sensors in recent years. FBAR offers high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for various environment monitoring applications. As the sensing signal is in the frequency domain, FABR has the potential to be incorporated in a wireless sensor network for remote sensing. This study extended our current knowledge of FBAR and pointed out feasible directions for future exploration.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

155620-Thumbnail Image.png

Flexi-WVSNP-DASH: a wireless video sensor network platform for the Internet of Things

Description

Video capture, storage, and distribution in wireless video sensor networks

(WVSNs) critically depends on the resources of the nodes forming the sensor

networks. In the era of big data, Internet

Video capture, storage, and distribution in wireless video sensor networks

(WVSNs) critically depends on the resources of the nodes forming the sensor

networks. In the era of big data, Internet of Things (IoT), and distributed

demand and solutions, there is a need for multi-dimensional data to be part of

the Sensor Network data that is easily accessible and consumable by humanity as

well as machinery. Images and video are expected to become as ubiquitous as is

the scalar data in traditional sensor networks. The inception of video-streaming

over the Internet, heralded a relentless research for effective ways of

distributing video in a scalable and cost effective way. There has been novel

implementation attempts across several network layers. Due to the inherent

complications of backward compatibility and need for standardization across

network layers, there has been a refocused attention to address most of the

video distribution over the application layer. As a result, a few video

streaming solutions over the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) have been

proposed. Most notable are Apple’s HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) and the Motion

Picture Experts Groups Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH). These

frameworks, do not address the typical and future WVSN use cases. A highly

flexible Wireless Video Sensor Network Platform and compatible DASH (WVSNP-DASH)

are introduced. The platform's goal is to usher video as a data element that

can be integrated into traditional and non-Internet networks. A low cost,

scalable node is built from the ground up to be fully compatible with the

Internet of Things Machine to Machine (M2M) concept, as well as the ability to

be easily re-targeted to new applications in a short time. Flexi-WVSNP design

includes a multi-radio node, a middle-ware for sensor operation and

communication, a cross platform client facing data retriever/player framework,

scalable security as well as a cohesive but decoupled hardware and software

design.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

154112-Thumbnail Image.png

Low-frequency accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducer in galvanic cell

Description

In this thesis, an approach to develop low-frequency accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) in an electrochemical cell is presented. Molecular electronic transducers are a class of inertial sensors

In this thesis, an approach to develop low-frequency accelerometer based on molecular electronic transducers (MET) in an electrochemical cell is presented. Molecular electronic transducers are a class of inertial sensors which are based on an electrochemical mechanism. Motion sensors based on MET technology consist of an electrochemical cell that can be used to detect the movement of liquid electrolyte between electrodes by converting it to an output current. Seismometers based on MET technology are attractive for planetary applications due to their high sensitivity, low noise, small size and independence on the direction of sensitivity axis. In addition, the fact that MET based sensors have a liquid inertial mass with no moving parts makes them rugged and shock tolerant (basic survivability has been demonstrated to >20 kG).

A Zn-Cu electrochemical cell (Galvanic cell) was applied in the low-frequency accelerometer. Experimental results show that external vibrations (range from 18 to 70 Hz) were successfully detected by this accelerometer as reactions Zn→〖Zn〗^(2+)+2e^- occurs around the anode and 〖Cu〗^(2+)+2e^-→Cu around the cathode. Accordingly, the sensitivity of this MET device design is to achieve 10.4 V/G at 18 Hz. And the sources of noise have been analyzed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

155565-Thumbnail Image.png

3D printed glucose monitoring sensor

Description

The American Diabetes Association reports that diabetes costs $322 billion annually and affects 29.1 million Americans. The high out-of-pocket cost of managing diabetes can lead to noncompliance causing serious and

The American Diabetes Association reports that diabetes costs $322 billion annually and affects 29.1 million Americans. The high out-of-pocket cost of managing diabetes can lead to noncompliance causing serious and expensive complications. There is a large market potential for a more cost-effective alternative to the current market standard of screen-printed self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) strips. Additive manufacturing, specifically 3D printing, is a developing field that is growing in popularity and functionality. 3D printers are now being used in a variety of applications from consumer goods to medical devices. Healthcare delivery will change as the availability of 3D printers expands into patient homes, which will create alternative and more cost-effective methods of monitoring and managing diseases, such as diabetes. 3D printing technology could transform this expensive industry. A 3D printed sensor was designed to have similar dimensions and features to the SMBG strips to comply with current manufacturing standards. To make the sensor electrically active, various conductive filaments were tested and the conductive graphene filament was determined to be the best material for the sensor. Experiments were conducted to determine the optimal print settings for printing this filament onto a mylar substrate, the industry standard. The reagents used include a mixture of a ferricyanide redox mediator and flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent glucose dehydrogenase. With these materials, each sensor only costs $0.40 to print and use. Before testing the 3D printed sensor, a suitable design, voltage range, and redox probe concentration were determined. Experiments demonstrated that this novel 3D printed sensor can accurately correlate current output to glucose concentration. It was verified that the sensor can accurately detect glucose levels from 25 mg/dL to 400 mg/dL, with an R2 correlation value as high as 0.97, which was critical as it covered hypoglycemic to hyperglycemic levels. This demonstrated that a 3D-printed sensor was created that had characteristics that are suitable for clinical use. This will allow diabetics to print their own test strips at home at a much lower cost compared to SMBG strips, which will reduce noncompliance due to the high cost of testing. In the future, this technology could be applied to additional biomarkers to measure and monitor other diseases.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

153275-Thumbnail Image.png

Highly sensitive in-plane strain mapping using a laser scanning technique

Description

In this work, a highly sensitive strain sensing technique is developed to realize in-plane strain mapping for microelectronic packages or emerging flexible or foldable devices, where mechanical or thermal strain

In this work, a highly sensitive strain sensing technique is developed to realize in-plane strain mapping for microelectronic packages or emerging flexible or foldable devices, where mechanical or thermal strain is a major concern that could affect the performance of the working devices or even lead to the failure of the devices. Therefore strain sensing techniques to create a contour of the strain distribution is desired.

The developed highly sensitive micro-strain sensing technique differs from the existing strain mapping techniques, such as digital image correlation (DIC)/micro-Moiré techniques, in terms of working mechanism, by filling a technology gap that requires high spatial resolution while simultaneously maintaining a large field-of-view. The strain sensing mechanism relies on the scanning of a tightly focused laser beam onto the grating that is on the sample surface to detect the change in the diffracted beam angle as a result of the strain. Gratings are fabricated on the target substrates to serve as strain sensors, which carries the strain information in the form of variations in the grating period. The geometric structure of the optical system inherently ensures the high sensitivity for the strain sensing, where the nanoscale change of the grating period is amplified by almost six orders into a diffraction peak shift on the order of several hundred micrometers. It significantly amplifies the small signal measurements so that the desired sensitivity and accuracy can be achieved.

The important features, such as strain sensitivity and spatial resolution, for the strain sensing technique are investigated to evaluate the technique. The strain sensitivity has been validated by measurements on homogenous materials with well known reference values of CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). 10 micro-strain has been successfully resolved from the silicon CTE extraction measurements. Furthermore, the spatial resolution has been studied on predefined grating patterns, which are assembled to mimic the uneven strain distribution across the sample surface. A resolvable feature size of 10 µm has been achieved with an incident laser spot size of 50 µm in diameter.

In addition, the strain sensing technique has been applied to a composite sample made of SU8 and silicon, as well as the microelectronic packages for thermal strain mappings.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

155887-Thumbnail Image.png

Fused Filament Fabrication of Prosthetic Components for Trans-Humeral Upper Limb Prosthetics

Description

Presented below is the design and fabrication of prosthetic components consisting of an attachment, tactile sensing, and actuator systems with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique. The attachment system is a

Presented below is the design and fabrication of prosthetic components consisting of an attachment, tactile sensing, and actuator systems with Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technique. The attachment system is a thermoplastic osseointegrated upper limb prosthesis for average adult trans-humeral amputation with mechanical properties greater than upper limb skeletal bone. The prosthetic designed has: a one-step surgical process, large cavities for bone tissue ingrowth, uses a material that has an elastic modulus less than skeletal bone, and can be fabricated on one system.

FFF osseointegration screw is an improvement upon the current two-part osseointegrated prosthetics that are composed of a fixture and abutment. The current prosthetic design requires two invasive surgeries for implantation and are made of titanium, which has an elastic modulus greater than bone. An elastic modulus greater than bone causes stress shielding and overtime can cause loosening of the prosthetic.

The tactile sensor is a thermoplastic piezo-resistive sensor for daily activities for a prosthetic’s feedback system. The tactile sensor is manufactured from a low elastic modulus composite comprising of a compressible thermoplastic elastomer and conductive carbon. Carbon is in graphite form and added in high filler ratios. The printed sensors were compared to sensors that were fabricated in a gravity mold to highlight the difference in FFF sensors to molded sensors. The 3D printed tactile sensor has a thickness and feel similar to human skin, has a simple fabrication technique, can detect forces needed for daily activities, and can be manufactured in to user specific geometries.

Lastly, a biomimicking skeletal muscle actuator for prosthetics was developed. The actuator developed is manufactured with Fuse Filament Fabrication using a shape memory polymer composite that has non-linear contractile and passive forces, contractile forces and strains comparable to mammalian skeletal muscle, reaction time under one second, low operating temperature, and has a low mass, volume, and material costs. The actuator improves upon current prosthetic actuators that provide rigid, linear force with high weight, cost, and noise.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

158586-Thumbnail Image.png

Point of Care Detection of Iron Metabolism Parameters Through Colorimetric Sensing

Description

Abnormally low or high blood iron levels are common health conditions worldwide and can seriously affect an individual’s overall well-being. A low-cost point-of-care technology that measures blood iron markers with

Abnormally low or high blood iron levels are common health conditions worldwide and can seriously affect an individual’s overall well-being. A low-cost point-of-care technology that measures blood iron markers with a goal of both preventing and treating iron-related disorders represents a significant advancement in medical care delivery systems. Methods: A novel assay equipped with an accurate, storable, and robust dry sensor strip, as well as a smartphone mount and (iPhone) app is used to measure total iron in human serum. The sensor strip has a vertical flow design and is based on an optimized chemical reaction. The reaction strips iron ions from blood-transport proteins, reduces Fe(III) to Fe(II), and chelates Fe(II) with ferene, with the change indicated by a blue color on the strip. The smartphone mount is robust and controls the light source of the color reading App, which is calibrated to obtain output iron concentration results. The real serum samples are then used to assess iron concentrations from the new assay and validated through intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory experiments. The intra-laboratory validation uses an optimized iron detection assay with multi-well plate spectrophotometry. The inter-laboratory validation method is performed in a commercial testing facility (LabCorp). Results: The novel assay with the dry sensor strip and smartphone mount, and App is seen to be sensitive to iron detection with a dynamic range of 50 - 300 µg/dL, sensitivity of 0.00049 µg/dL, coefficient of variation (CV) of 10.5%, and an estimated detection limit of ~15 µg/dL These analytical specifications are useful for predicting iron deficiency and overloads. The optimized reference method has a sensitivity of 0.00093 µg/dL and CV of 2.2%. The correlation of serum iron concentrations (N=20) between the optimized reference method and the novel assay renders a slope of 0.95, and a regression coefficient of 0.98, suggesting that the new assay is accurate. Lastly, a spectrophotometric study of the iron detection reaction kinetics is seen to reveal the reaction order for iron and chelating agent. Conclusion: The new assay is able to provide accurate results in intra- and inter- laboratory validations and has promising features of both mobility and low-cost.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

155660-Thumbnail Image.png

A Portable Colorimetric Sensing Platform for the Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide in Breath

Description

This work describes the development of a device for measuring CO2 in breath, which has applications in monitoring a variety of health issues, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD),

This work describes the development of a device for measuring CO2 in breath, which has applications in monitoring a variety of health issues, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, and cardiovascular disease. The device takes advantage of colorimetric sensing technology in order to maintain a low cost and high user-friendliness. The sensor consists of a pH dye, reactive element, and base coated on a highly porous Teflon membrane. The transmittance of the sensor is measured in the device via a simple LED/photodiode system, along with the flow rate, ambient relative humidity, and barometric pressure. The flow is measured by a newly developed flow meter described in this work, the Confined Pitot Tube (CPT) flow meter, which provides a high accuracy with reduced flow-resistance with a standard differential pressure transducer. I demonstrate in this work that the system has a high sensitivity, high specificity, fast time-response, high reproducibility, and good stability. The sensor has a simple calibration method which requires no action by the user, and utilizes a sophisticated, yet lightweight, model in order to predict temperature changes on the sensor during breathing and track changes in water content. It is shown to be effective for measuring CO2 waveform parameters on a breath-by-breath basis, such as End-Tidal CO2, Alveolar Plateau Slope, and Beginning Exhalation Slope.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017