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Assessing the Voids in the Space Liability Framework: Space Privatization and Space Debris

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This thesis seeks to examine shortcomings in space law by focusing on two interconnected aspects: privatization and space debris. The aspects of privatization and space debris will be examined under the context of the Outer Space Treaty (OST) and other

This thesis seeks to examine shortcomings in space law by focusing on two interconnected aspects: privatization and space debris. The aspects of privatization and space debris will be examined under the context of the Outer Space Treaty (OST) and other relevant legal instruments. Privatization and space debris are two current challenges that the OST fails to regulate efficiently. While the OST was being drafted, the international community did not foresee problems such as privatization and space debris. This is significant because we are witnessing an increase in privatization of space activities and corporations as well as a massive accumulation of dangerous space debris. While the OST grants states the power to regulate private space companies and the accretion of space debris, national laws rarely align with the OST, leading to the abuse of international space laws. We will make recommendations at the end of the thesis in an effort to revise the use of soft language in the OST to attune national laws with international laws as well as address the growing ambiguity surrounding privatization and space debris.

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2019-05

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Space Junk: Finding a Feasible Solution to Space Debris Removal (Including Recycling and Chemical Processes)

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Orbiting space debris is an active issue that affects the capability of space launch for future satellites, probes, and space shuttles, and it will become a nearly insurmountable problem without action. Debris of varying sizes and speeds orbit the Earth

Orbiting space debris is an active issue that affects the capability of space launch for future satellites, probes, and space shuttles, and it will become a nearly insurmountable problem without action. Debris of varying sizes and speeds orbit the Earth at a range of heights above the atmosphere and need to be removed to avoid damage to crucial equipment of active orbiting satellites including the International Space Station. Finding a feasible solution to space debris removal requires that several facets be covered to become a reality; these include being aware of the problem in magnitude and source. This literature assessment covers the magnitude of space debris in low-earth and geosynchronous orbit as well as collision events which have increased the amount of space debris. There have been efforts made by several space agencies to control the amount of space debris added to orbit by current and future launches over the last decade \u2014 serving as a temporary fix before removal can be executed. This paper explores known removal efforts through mitigation, projects conceived and tested by DARPA, related space policies and laws, CubeSat technology, and the cataloguing of known space debris. To make space debris removal a reality, roadblocks need to be removed to acquire permission from states or countries for space missions. For example, these restrictions are in place to protect the assets of several countries and organizations. Guidelines set to curb the growth of space debris fail to prevent the growth due to the restrictions for ownership rights making them not as effective. This paper covers space policy and laws, the economy, satellite ownership, international conflict, status of space debris, and the overall feasibility of space debris removal. It will then discuss currently proposed solutions for the removal of space debris. Finally, this paper attempts to weight the advantages and disadvantages of the idea that space debris removal should include the opportunity to recycle materials. For example, defunct satellites and other discarded space crafts could be used for future launches. It will conclude with a personal exploration of what materials can be recycled, what chemical processes can be used to break down materials, and how to combine recycling and chemical processes for space-based recycling stations between Earth and the moon. The overall question that drives the search for making space debris removal a reality is whether it is feasible in multiple areas including technologically, legally, monetarily, and physically.

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2017-05

ROB ROY AND THE EXPLORATION OF CULTURAL IDENTITY: THE SOCIOPOLITICAL RELATIONSHIP OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND ACCORDING TO SIR WALTER SCOTT

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The interaction between England and Scotland is complicated and continually changing. Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott examines this long-standing relationship through his various writings. Scott conveys a presence that is both acutely aware of the damages enacted upon Scotland by

The interaction between England and Scotland is complicated and continually changing. Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott examines this long-standing relationship through his various writings. Scott conveys a presence that is both acutely aware of the damages enacted upon Scotland by various English political efforts, and sensitive to the delicate relationship that the two regions had begun to form during his lifetime. Through a critical analysis of Scott's novel, Rob Roy, one can see the various strategies Scott used to balance the need to address prior controversies within the relationship, and the petition to move beyond the prior conflict and develop a mutual understanding of each culture. Through this, Scott is able to regenerate a sense of Scottish nationalism for his people, and encourage improved relations within the British Isles.

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2013-05