Common treatments for substance addiction in the United States (U.S) are the twelve-step programs of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA). However, there is a lack of evidence indicating the effectiveness of AA and NA as substance addiction treatment methods. The U.S. is currently grappling with one of its worst-ever alcohol and drug crises, illustrating that now more than ever it is necessary to examine alternative treatment methods for substance addiction to successfully treat this type of addiction. Thus, Buddhism can be seen as both a complement to and alternative for AA and NA treatment programs for treating substance addiction. The Buddhist teachings and practices of the Four Noble Truths, The Eightfold Path, mindfulness, and meditation can be used to treat substance addiction. Although only recently utilized in the U.S. to treat substance addiction, Buddhist teachings and practices offer a nontheistic approach to recovery which research has shown to be successful in treating substance addiction in countries with established Buddhist cultures. By determining what treatment method is most successful in treating this type of addiction, the U.S. will be able to effectively reduce substance addiction rates -- which is crucial to protect the health, safety, and quality of life for all.