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Toxin Level Analysis in Dogs Envenomated by Pit Vipers in Arizona

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To date, there have been few, if any, studies evaluating the venom toxin levels in dogs that have been naturally envenomated by pit vipers. Understanding venom toxin pharmacokinetics in a clinical setting is important for a variety of reasons, including

To date, there have been few, if any, studies evaluating the venom toxin levels in dogs that have been naturally envenomated by pit vipers. Understanding venom toxin pharmacokinetics in a clinical setting is important for a variety of reasons, including the potential to better elucidate treatment options, prognosis, and other factors associated with pit viper envenomation. In addition, dogs serve as a comparative species to humans for evaluating pit viper envenomations. This pilot study’s primary objective was to address the question of “What do we see?” in dogs presenting for rattlesnake envenomation. To answer this question, we obtained serum from envenomated dogs presenting at three veterinary clinics, then used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis to measure total venom and key toxins in sera. Phospholipase A2, a primary venom toxin, was identified in a few samples by the western blot, and contributed to the positive correlation between percent echinocytes in the blood and venom concentration. Medical data records were compared to venom concentrations measured using ELISA to determine whether there were any significant correlations. First, the hematological results were compared. Clotting times showed a strong positive correlation, clotting times and platelets showed a negative correlation, while echinocytes and platelets showed no correlation. When compared to venom concentration, clotting times showed a negative correlation, while age showed a positive correlation. Weight and platelets were also compared to venom concentration, but no significant correlations were found. The logistics of this study provided a real-world model where time elapsed between envenomation and hospital admission, thus giving a realistic look at what occurs in both animal and human medicine.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Canine Obesity Awareness and Owner Responsiveness

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Pet obesity is higher than ever in the United States. According to the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention, 52.5% of dogs and 58.3% of cats were either overweight or obese in 20121. Obesity has been linked to health issues such

Pet obesity is higher than ever in the United States. According to the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention, 52.5% of dogs and 58.3% of cats were either overweight or obese in 20121. Obesity has been linked to health issues such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, muscular disorders and some cancers to name a few.2 A pet at the recommended healthy weight is important to avoid these diseases. It is important that owners realize this and if their pet is at an unhealthy weight, work with their veterinarian to help the pet lose weight. This study looks at how committed dog owners are to help their pet lose weight and the problems they face while doing so.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Examination of the Ethical Responsibility of Veterinarians Regarding Cases of Animal Abuse and Neglect

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Attitudes toward animal welfare have been evolving in our society as we have developed from early agricultural roots to an increasingly urban and technologically advanced community. However, despite the growing societal appreciation and care for animals in our homes and

Attitudes toward animal welfare have been evolving in our society as we have developed from early agricultural roots to an increasingly urban and technologically advanced community. However, despite the growing societal appreciation and care for animals in our homes and backyards, veterinarians are still faced with cases of abuse and neglect. Although it may seem obvious for veterinarians, as animal welfare advocates, to confront this dilemma each time they are faced with it, that is not always the case. In order to assess the responsibilities of veterinarians in regard to neglect and abuse, an extensive literature review and analysis was performed and practicing veterinarians were interviewed to determine their attitudes regarding the responsibility to report suspected cases of animal neglect and abuse. Specifically, these interviews focused on such topics as the educational background of the practitioners, how empathy impacts their perception of animal welfare, their relationship with law enforcement agencies, and related questions. The study demonstrated that the most prominent factor in a veterinarian's understanding of violations of animal welfare stems from their educational background. Therefore, it is recommended that veterinary medicine programs alter their curricula to emphasize animal welfare training and the obligation of veterinarians to report suspected cases of neglect and abuse.

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Date Created
2013-12