Matching Items (8)

132556-Thumbnail Image.png

Implementation maintenance outcomes from the ‘Stand and Move at Work’ Cluster Randomized Trial

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the overall maintenance of behavior during the 12 to 24 month period of the ​Stand&Move@Work​ study and the impact of implementation factors

The purpose of this study was to examine the overall maintenance of behavior during the 12 to 24 month period of the ​Stand&Move@Work​ study and the impact of implementation factors (i.e., facilitators, advocate activity, and the amount of strategies used) on behavior change. The design of the study was a cluster randomized trial which was facilitated by researchers for the first 12 months of the study. The primary aim of the study was to examine the maintenance of behavior change (i.e., sitting time) at the 12 month and 24 month marks using objectively measured sedentary behavior (activPAL micro). The secondary aim of the study was to examine the impact of implementation factors (i.e., facilitators, advocate activity, and the amount of strategies used) on behavior change during the 12 through 24 months maintenance period. Participants (N=630) included full-time, caucasian, middle-aged office workers. For the primary aim, descriptive means were used to cluster for observations within-persons and were adjusted for age, gender, race, job-type, and ordering effects.. For the secondary aim, descriptive means adjusted for workplace culture and environment were computed. At the 24 month mark, participants spent 280.67 ± 87.67 min/8hr workday sitting and 161.94 ± 85.87 min/8hr workday standing. The top performing worksites displayed reductions in sitting time which largely translated into standing time by about 30 minutes per 8 hour workday at 24 months. Feasibility findings indicated that implementation strategies do not show differences between the top 25% and bottom 25% performing worksites. This study provides insight to implementation strategies for interventions in the workplace.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

158370-Thumbnail Image.png

The Associations of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep with Cognitive Function in Adults without Cognitive Impairment

Description

This body of research sought to explore relationships between cognitive function and physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep, independently and in conjunction, in mid-life to older adults with

This body of research sought to explore relationships between cognitive function and physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and sleep, independently and in conjunction, in mid-life to older adults with no known cognitive impairment. Aging is associated with cognitive decline, and lifestyle behaviors such as PA, SB, and sleep, may mitigate this decline. First, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effect of aerobic PA interventions on memory and executive function in sedentary adults. Second, a longitudinal study was conducted to examine the association between SB and odds of incident cognitive impairment, and SB and cognitive decline in older adults. Last, a cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the joint associations between different levels of sleep with levels of PA, and sleep with levels of sedentary time on memory and executive function. This body of research provided evidence to support the association between aerobic PA and improved cognitive function, SB and incident cognitive impairment and cognitive function declines, and the joint association of sleep and different levels of PA and ST on cognitive function by hypertension status.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

151476-Thumbnail Image.png

The assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviors

Description

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four projects that examined measurement properties of physical activity and sedentary behavior monitors. Project one identified the oxygen costs of four other care activities in seventeen adults. Pushing a wheelchair and pushing a stroller were identified as moderate-intensity activities. Minutes spent engaged in these activities contribute towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project two identified the oxygen costs of common cleaning activities in sixteen adults. Mopping a floor was identified as moderate-intensity physical activity, while cleaning a kitchen and cleaning a bathtub were identified as light-intensity physical activity. Minutes spent engaged in mopping a floor contributes towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project three evaluated the differences in number of minutes spent in activity levels when utilizing different epoch lengths in accelerometry. A shorter epoch length (1-second, 5-seconds) accumulated significantly more minutes of sedentary behaviors than a longer epoch length (60-seconds). The longer epoch length also identified significantly more time engaged in light-intensity activities than the shorter epoch lengths. Future research needs to account for epoch length selection when conducting physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment. Project four investigated the accuracy of four activity monitors in assessing activities that were either sedentary behaviors or light-intensity physical activities. The ActiGraph GT3X+ assessed the activities least accurately, while the SenseWear Armband and ActivPAL assessed activities equally accurately. The monitor used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviors may influence the accuracy of the measurement of a construct.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

155684-Thumbnail Image.png

Monitors-based measurement of sedentary behaviors and light physical activity in adults

Description

Having accurate measurements of sedentary behaviors is important to understand relationships between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and to evaluate changes in interventions and health promotion programs designed to reduce

Having accurate measurements of sedentary behaviors is important to understand relationships between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and to evaluate changes in interventions and health promotion programs designed to reduce sedentary behaviors. This dissertation included three projects that examined measurement properties of wearable monitors used to measure sedentary behaviors. Project one examined the validity of three monitors: the ActiGraph GT3X+, activPAL™, and SenseWear 2. None of the monitors were equivalent with the criterion measure of oxygen uptake to estimate the energy cost of sedentary and light-intensity activities. The ActivPAL™ had the best accuracy as compared with the other monitors. In project two, the accuracy of ActiGraph GT3X+and GENEActiv cut-points used to assess sedentary behavior were compared with direct observation during free-living conditions. New vector magnitude cut-points also were developed to classify time spent in sedentary- and stationary behaviors during free-living conditions. The cut-points tested had modest overall accuracy to classify sedentary time as compared to direct observation. New ActiGraph 1-minute vector cut-points increased overall accuracy for classifying sedentary time. Project 3 examined the accuracy of the sedentary sphere by testing various arm elevation- and movement-count configurations using GENEActiv and ActiGraph GT3X+ data obtained during free-living conditions. None of the configurations were equivalent to the criterion measure of direct observation. The best configuration of the GENEActiv was: worn on the dominant wrist at 15 degrees below the horizontal plane with a cut-point <489 for each 15-second interval. The best configuration for the ActiGraph was: worn on the non-dominant wrist at 5° below the horizontal plane with a cut-point of <489 counts for each 15-second interval. Collectively, these findings indicate that the wearable monitors and methods examined in this study are limited in their ability to assess sedentary behaviors and light intensity physical activity. Additional research is needed to further understand the scope and limitations of wearable monitors and methods used to assess sedentary behaviors and light intensity physical activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

155443-Thumbnail Image.png

Sleep-related mediators of the physical activity and sedentary behavior-cardiometabolic biomarker relationship in middle age adults

Description

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep are often associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers commonly found in metabolic syndrome. These relationships are well studied, and yet there are still questions on how

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep are often associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers commonly found in metabolic syndrome. These relationships are well studied, and yet there are still questions on how each activity may affect cardiometabolic biomarkers. The objective of this study was to examine data from the BeWell24 studies to evaluate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors and cardiometabolic biomarkers in middle age adults, while also determining if sleep quality and duration mediates this relationship. A group of inactive participants (N = 29, age = 52.1 ± 8.1 years, 38% female) with increased risk for cardiometabolic disease were recruited to participate in BeWell24, a trial testing the impact of a lifestyle-based, multicomponent smartphone application targeting sleep, sedentary, and more active behaviors. During baseline, interim (4 weeks), and posttest visits (8 weeks), biomarker measurements were collected for weight (kg), waist circumference (cm), glucose (mg/dl), insulin (uU/ml), lipids (mg/dl), diastolic and systolic blood pressures (mm Hg), and C reactive protein (mg/L). Participants wore validated wrist and thigh sensors for one week intervals at each time point to measure sedentary behavior, physical activity, and sleep outcomes. Long bouts of sitting time (>30 min) significantly affected triglycerides (beta = .15 (±.07), p<.03); however, no significant mediation effects for sleep quality or duration were present. No other direct effects were observed between physical activity measurements and cardiometabolic biomarkers. The findings of this study suggest that reductions in long bouts of sitting time may support reductions in triglycerides, yet these effects were not mediated by sleep-related improvements.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

154920-Thumbnail Image.png

A system identification and control engineering approach for optimizing mHealth behavioral interventions based on social cognitive theory

Description

Behavioral health problems such as physical inactivity are among the main causes of mortality around the world. Mobile and wireless health (mHealth) interventions offer the opportunity for applying control engineering

Behavioral health problems such as physical inactivity are among the main causes of mortality around the world. Mobile and wireless health (mHealth) interventions offer the opportunity for applying control engineering concepts in behavioral change settings. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is among the most influential theories of health behavior and has been used as the conceptual basis of many behavioral interventions. This dissertation examines adaptive behavioral interventions for physical inactivity problems based on SCT using system identification and control engineering principles. First, a dynamical model of SCT using fluid analogies is developed. The model is used throughout the dissertation to evaluate system identification approaches and to develop control strategies based on Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC). An initial system identification informative experiment is designed to obtain basic insights about the system. Based on the informative experimental results, a second optimized experiment is developed as the solution of a formal constrained optimization problem. The concept of Identification Test Monitoring (ITM) is developed for determining experimental duration and adjustments to the input signals in real time. ITM relies on deterministic signals, such as multisines, and uncertainty regions resulting from frequency domain transfer function estimation that is performed during experimental execution. ITM is motivated by practical considerations in behavioral interventions; however, a generalized approach is presented for broad-based multivariable application settings such as process control. Stopping criteria for the experimental test utilizing ITM are developed using both open-loop and robust control considerations.

A closed-loop intensively adaptive intervention for physical activity is proposed relying on a controller formulation based on HMPC. The discrete and logical features of HMPC naturally address the categorical nature of the intervention components that include behavioral goals and reward points. The intervention incorporates online controller reconfiguration to manage the transition between the behavioral initiation and maintenance training stages. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the system using a model for a hypothetical participant under realistic conditions that include uncertainty. The contributions of this dissertation can ultimately impact novel applications of cyberphysical system in medical applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

156476-Thumbnail Image.png

Feasibility of Using Prompts to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Office Workers with Sit-Stand Workstations: A randomized Cross-Over Trial

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a theory-driven and a atheoretical reminder point-of-choice (PoC) prompt interventions on reducing workplace sedentary behavior in

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a theory-driven and a atheoretical reminder point-of-choice (PoC) prompt interventions on reducing workplace sedentary behavior in office workers with self-reported low usage (<4 hours per day) of their sit-stand workstations in the standing position. The design of this study was a cross-over trial including randomization into either the theory-driven or atheoertical reminder condition, after completion of a no prompt control condition. Participants (N=19) included full-time, primarily female, Caucasian, middle-aged office workers. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of these two PoC prompt conditions on reducing sedentary behaviors through the use of a Therapy Evaluation Questionnaire. The secondary aim of this study was to assess the preliminary efficacy of the two PoC prompt conditions on reducing sedentary behaviors relative to no-prompt control using the activPAL micro device. For the primary aim, descriptive means adjusted for ordering effect were computed. For the secondary aim, mixed-effects regression models were used to cluster for observations within-persons and were adjusted for age, gender, race, job-type, and ordering effects. During the no-prompt control, participants spent 267.90 ± 68.01 sitting and 170.20 ± 69.34 min/8hr workday standing. The reminder PoC prompt condition significantly increased sanding time (b[se] = 24.52 [11.09], p=0.034) while the theory-driven PoC condition significantly decreased time spent in long sitting bouts b[se] = -34.86 [16.20], p=0.036), both relative to no prompt control. No statistically significant reductions in sitting time were seen in either PoC prompt condition. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between the two PoC prompt conditions were observed. This study provides feasibility insight in addition to objective measures of sedentary behaviors regarding the use of PoC prompt interventions in the workplace.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

152020-Thumbnail Image.png

A theory-based pilot study to decrease sitting time in the workplace

Description

The purpose of this pilot randomized control trial was to test the initial efficacy of a 10 week social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention to reduce workplace sitting time (ST). Participants

The purpose of this pilot randomized control trial was to test the initial efficacy of a 10 week social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention to reduce workplace sitting time (ST). Participants were currently employed adults with predominantly sedentary occupations (n=24) working in the Greater Phoenix area in 2012-2013. Participants wore an activPAL (AP) inclinometer to assess postural allocation (i.e., sitting vs. standing) and Actigraph accelerometer (AG) to assess sedentary time for one week prior to beginning and immediately following the completion of the 10 week intervention. Self-reported measures of sedentary time were obtained via two validated questionnaires for overall (International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]) and domain specific sedentary behaviors (Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire [SBQ]). SCT constructs were also measured pre and post via adapted physical activity questionnaires. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either (a) 10 weekly social cognitive-based e-newsletters focused on reducing workplace ST; or (b) similarly formatted 10 weekly e-newsletters focusing on health education. Baseline adjusted Analysis of Covariance statistical analyses were used to examine differences between groups in time spent sitting (AP) and sedentary (AG) during self-reported work hours from pre- to post- intervention. Both groups decreased ST and AG sedentary time; however, no significant differences were observed. SCT constructs also did not change significantly between pretest and post test in either group. These results indicate that individualized educational approaches to decreasing workplace sitting time may not be sufficient for observing long term change in behaviors. Future research should utilize a larger sample, measure main outcomes more frequently, and incorporate more environmental factors throughout the intervention.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013