Matching Items (21)

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Convection Heat Transfer in Mineral Oil CPU Immersion Cooling

Description

In this paper, the effectiveness and practical applications of cooling a computer's CPU using mineral oil is investigated. A computer processor or CPU may be immersed along with other electronics

In this paper, the effectiveness and practical applications of cooling a computer's CPU using mineral oil is investigated. A computer processor or CPU may be immersed along with other electronics in mineral oil and still be operational. The mineral oil acts as a dielectric and prevents shorts in the electronics while also being thermally conductive and cooling the CPU. A simple comparison of a flat plate immersed in air versus mineral oil is considered using analytical natural convection correlations. The result of this comparison indicates that the plate cooled by natural convection in air would operate at 98.41[°C] while the plate cooled by mineral oil would operate at 32.20 [°C]. Next, CFD in ANSYS Fluent was used to conduct simulation with forced convection representing a CPU fan driving fluid flow to cool the CPU. A comparison is made between cooling done with air and mineral oil. The results of the CFD simulation results indicate that using mineral oil as a substitute to air as the cooling fluid reduced the CPU operating temperature by sixty degrees Celsius. The use of mineral oil as a cooling fluid for a consumer computer has valid thermal benefits, but the practical challenges of the method will likely prevent widespread adoption.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Analysis of the Airflow around a Rotating Cylindrical Arrow

Description

This honors thesis explores and models the flow of air around a cylindrical arrow that is rotating as it moves through the air. This model represents the airflow around an

This honors thesis explores and models the flow of air around a cylindrical arrow that is rotating as it moves through the air. This model represents the airflow around an archery arrow after it is released from the bow and rotates while it flies through the air. This situation is important in archery because an understanding of the airflow allows archers to predict the flight of the arrow. As a result, archers can improve their accuracy and ability to hit targets. However, not many computational fluid dynamic simulations modeling the airflow around a rotating archery arrow exist. This thesis attempts to further the understanding of the airflow around a rotating archery arrow by creating a mathematical model to numerically simulate the airflow around the arrow in the presence of this rotation. This thesis uses a linearized approximation of the Navier Stokes equations to model the airflow around the arrow and explains the reasoning for using this simplification of the fully nonlinear Navier Stokes equations. This thesis continues to describe the discretization of these linearized equations using the finite difference method and the boundary conditions used for these equations. A MATLAB code solves the resulting system of equations in order to obtain a numerical simulation of this airflow around the rotating arrow. The results of the simulation for each velocity component and the pressure distribution are displayed. This thesis then discusses the results of the simulation, and the MATLAB code is analyzed to verify the convergence of the solution. Appendix A includes the full MATLAB code used for the flow simulation. Finally, this thesis explains potential future research topics, ideas, and improvements to the code that can help further the understanding and create more realistic simulations of the airflow around a flying archery arrow.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Modeling the effect of urbanization on climate and dust generation over desert cities

Description

Understanding and predicting climate changes at the urban scale have been an important yet challenging problem in environmental engineering. The lack of reliable long-term observations at the urban scale makes

Understanding and predicting climate changes at the urban scale have been an important yet challenging problem in environmental engineering. The lack of reliable long-term observations at the urban scale makes it difficult to even assess past climate changes. Numerical modeling plays an important role in filling the gap of observation and predicting future changes. Numerical studies on the climatic effect of desert urbanization have focused on basic meteorological fields such as temperature and wind. For desert cities, urban expansion can lead to substantial changes in the local production of wind-blown dust, which have implications for air quality and public health. This study expands the existing framework of numerical simulation for desert urbanization to include the computation of dust generation related to urban land-use changes. This is accomplished by connecting a suite of numerical models, including a meso-scale meteorological model, a land-surface model, an urban canopy model, and a turbulence model, to produce the key parameters that control the surface fluxes of wind-blown dust. Those models generate the near-surface turbulence intensity, soil moisture, and land-surface properties, which are used to determine the dust fluxes from a set of laboratory-based empirical formulas. This framework is applied to a series of simulations for the desert city of Erbil across a period of rapid urbanization. The changes in surface dust fluxes associated with urbanization are quantified. An analysis of the model output further reveals the dependence of surface dust fluxes on local meteorological conditions. Future applications of the models to environmental prediction are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Thermal Drainage Flow of a Viscous Gas From a Semi-Sealed Narrow Channel

Description

Drainage flow of a viscous compressible gas from a semi-sealed narrow conduit is a pore-scale model for studying the fundamental flow physics of fluid recovery from a porous reservoir without

Drainage flow of a viscous compressible gas from a semi-sealed narrow conduit is a pore-scale model for studying the fundamental flow physics of fluid recovery from a porous reservoir without using fluid injection. Thermal effect has been routinely neglected for these flows in the traditional petroleum engineering literature. Since the motion is entirely driven by volumetric expansion, temperature change always accompanies the density change. This thesis examines such thermal effects on the drainage flow.

Thermal drainage flow is first studied by simultaneously solving the linearized continuity, momentum and energy equations for adiabatic walls. It is shown that even in the absence of an imposed temperature drop, gas expansion induces a transient temperature decrease inside the channel, which slows down the drainage process compared to the isothermal model and Lighthill’s model. For a given density drop, gas drains out faster as the initial-to-final temperature ratio increases; and the transient density can undershoot the final equilibrium value. A parametric study is then carried out to explore the influence of various thermal boundary conditions on drainage flow. It is found that as the wall transitions from adiabatic to isothermal condition, the excess density changes from a plane wave solution to a non-plane wave solution and the drainage rate increases. It is shown that when the exit is also cooled and the wall is non-adiabatic, the total recovered fluid mass exceeds the amount based on the isothermal theory which is determined by the initial and final density difference alone. Finally, a full numerical simulation is conducted to mimic the channel-reservoir system using the finite volume method. The Ghost-Cell Navier-Stokes Characteristic Boundary Condition technique is applied at the far end of the truncated reservoir, which is an open boundary. The results confirm the conclusions of the linear theory.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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A Computational Protocol for Spray Flows Using the Quadratic Formula as the Primary Atomization Module

Description

Computability of spray flows is an important issue, from both fundamental and practical perspectives. Spray flows have important applications in fuel injection, agriculture, medical devices, and industrial processes such as

Computability of spray flows is an important issue, from both fundamental and practical perspectives. Spray flows have important applications in fuel injection, agriculture, medical devices, and industrial processes such as spray cooling. For this reason, many efforts have been devoted to experimental, computational and some theoretical aspects of spray flows. In particular, primary atomization, the process of bulk liquid transitioning to small droplets, is a central and probably the most difficult aspect of spray flows. This thesis discusses developed methods, results, and needed improvements in the modeling of primary atomization using a predictive Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) formula. Primary atomization for round injectors and simplex atomizers is modeled using a three-step procedure. For each spray geometry, a volume-of-fluid simulation is run to resolve the trajectory of the intact liquid core. Atomization criterion is applied to the volume-of-fluid velocity field to determine atomization sites. Local droplet size is predicted at the atomization sites using the quadratic formula for Sauter Mean Diameter. Droplets with the computed drop size are injected from the atomization sites and are tracked as point-particles. A User Defined Memory (UDM) code is employed to compute steady-state Sauter Mean Diameter statistics at locations corresponding to experimental interrogation locations. The resulting Sauter Mean Diameter, droplet trajectory, and droplet velocity are compared against experimental data to validate the computational protocol. This protocol can be implemented on coarse-grid, time-averaged simulations of spray flows, and produces convincing results when compared with experimental data for pressure-atomized sprays with and without swirl. This approach is general and can be adapted in any spray geometry for complete and efficient computations of spray flows.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Accuracy and Computational Stability of Tensorally-Correct Subgrid Stress and Scalar Flux Representations in Autonomic Closure of LES

Description

Autonomic closure is a recently-proposed subgrid closure methodology for large eddy simulation (LES) that replaces the prescribed subgrid models used in traditional LES closure with highly generalized representations of subgrid

Autonomic closure is a recently-proposed subgrid closure methodology for large eddy simulation (LES) that replaces the prescribed subgrid models used in traditional LES closure with highly generalized representations of subgrid terms and solution of a local system identification problem that allows the simulation itself to determine the local relation between each subgrid term and the resolved variables at every point and time. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, practical LES based on fully dynamic implementation of autonomic closure for the subgrid stress and the subgrid scalar flux. It leverages the inherent computational efficiency of tensorally-correct generalized representations in terms of parametric quantities, and uses the fundamental representation theory of Smith (1971) to develop complete and minimal tensorally-correct representations for the subgrid stress and scalar flux. It then assesses the accuracy of these representations via a priori tests, and compares with the corresponding accuracy from nonparametric representations and from traditional prescribed subgrid models. It then assesses the computational stability of autonomic closure with these tensorally-correct parametric representations, via forward simulations with a high-order pseudo-spectral code, including the extent to which any added stabilization is needed to ensure computational stability, and compares with the added stabilization needed in traditional closure with prescribed subgrid models. Further, it conducts a posteriori tests based on forward simulations of turbulent conserved scalar mixing with the same pseudo-spectral code, in which velocity and scalar statistics from autonomic closure with these representations are compared with corresponding statistics from traditional closure using prescribed models, and with corresponding statistics of filtered fields from direct numerical simulation (DNS). These comparisons show substantially greater accuracy from autonomic closure than from traditional closure. This study demonstrates that fully dynamic autonomic closure is a practical approach for LES that requires accuracy even at the smallest resolved scales.

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Date Created
  • 2020

A collation and analysis of two-dimensional unsplit conservative advection methods for volume of fluid at interfaces

Description

The goal of this paper was to do an analysis of two-dimensional unsplit mass and momentum conserving Finite Volume Methods for Advection for Volume of Fluid Fields with interfaces and

The goal of this paper was to do an analysis of two-dimensional unsplit mass and momentum conserving Finite Volume Methods for Advection for Volume of Fluid Fields with interfaces and validating their rates of convergence. Specifically three unsplit transport methods and one split transport method were amalgamated individually with four Piece-wise Linear Reconstruction Schemes (PLIC) i.e. Unsplit Eulerian Advection (UEA) by Owkes and Desjardins (2014), Unsplit Lagrangian Advection (ULA) by Yang et al. (2010), Split Lagrangian Advection (SLA) by Scardovelli and Zaleski (2003) and Unsplit Averaged Eulerian-Lagrangian Advection (UAELA) with two Finite Difference Methods by Parker and Youngs (1992) and two Error Minimization Methods by Pilliod Jr and Puckett (2004). The observed order of accuracy was first order in all cases except when unsplit methods and error minimization methods were used consecutively in each iteration, which resulted in second-order accuracy on the shape error convergence. The Averaged Unsplit Eulerian-Lagrangian Advection (AUELA) did produce first-order accuracy but that was due to a temporal error in the numerical setup. The main unsplit methods, Unsplit Eulerian Advection (UEA) and Unsplit Lagrangian Advection (ULA), preserve mass and momentum and require geometric clipping to solve two-phase fluid flows. The Unsplit Lagrangian Advection (ULA) can allow for small divergence in the velocity field perhaps saving time on the iterative solver of the variable coefficient Poisson System.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Dynamics of Ices and Fluids on Mars and Kuiper Belt Objects

Description

The seasonal deposition of CO2 on the polar caps is one of the most dynamic processes on Mars and is a dominant driver of the global climate. Remote sensing temperature

The seasonal deposition of CO2 on the polar caps is one of the most dynamic processes on Mars and is a dominant driver of the global climate. Remote sensing temperature and albedo data were used to estimate the subliming mass of CO2 ice on south polar gullies near Sisyphi Cavi. Results showed that column mass abundances range from 400 - 1000 kg.m2 in an area less than 60 km2 in late winter. Complete sublimation of the seasonal caps may occur later than estimated by large-scale studies and is geographically dependent. Seasonal ice depth estimates suggested variations of up to 1.5 m in depth or 75% in porosity at any one time. Interannual variations in these data appeared to correlate with dust activity in the southern hemisphere. Correlation coefficients were used to investigate the relationship between frost-free surface properties and the evolution of the seasonal ice in this region. Ice on high thermal inertia units was found to disappear before any other ice, likely caused by inhibited deposition during fall. Seasonal ice springtime albedo appeared to be predominantly controlled by orientation, with north-facing slopes undergoing brightening initially in spring, then subliming before south-facing slopes. Overall, the state of seasonal ice is far more complex than globally and regionally averaged studies can identify.

The discovery of cryovolcanic features on Charon and the presence of ammonia hydrates on the surfaces of other medium-sized Kuiper Belt Objects suggests that cryovolcanism may be important to their evolution. A two-dimensional, center-point finite difference, thermal hydraulic model was developed to explore the behavior of cryovolcanic conduits on midsized KBOs. Conduits on a Charon-surrogate were shown to maintain flow through over 200 km of crust and mantle down to radii of R = 0.20 m. Radii higher than this became turbulent due to high viscous dissipation and low thermal conductivity. This model was adapted to explore the emplacement of Kubrik Mons. Steady state flow was achieved with a conduit of radius R = 0.02 m for a source chamber at 2.3 km depth. Effusion rates computed from this estimated a 122 - 163 Myr upper limit formation timescale.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Numerical Simulation of the Interaction Between Floating Objects and a Gravity Driven Flow

Description

This thesis focuses on studying the interaction between floating objects and an air-water flow system driven by gravity. The system consists of an inclined channel in which a gravity driven

This thesis focuses on studying the interaction between floating objects and an air-water flow system driven by gravity. The system consists of an inclined channel in which a gravity driven two phase flow carries a series of floating solid objects downstream. Numerical simulations of such a system requires the solution of not only the basic Navier-Stokes equation but also dynamic interaction between the solid body and the two-phase flow. In particular, this requires embedding of dynamic mesh within the two-phase flow. A computational fluid dynamics solver, ANSYS fluent, is used to solve this problem. Also, the individual components for these simulations are already available in the solver, few examples exist in which all are combined. A series of simulations are performed by varying the key parameters, including density of floating objects and mass flow rate at the inlet. The motion of the floating objects in those simulations are analyzed to determine the stability of the coupled flow-solid system. The simulations are successfully performed over a broad range of parametric values. The numerical framework developed in this study can potentially be used in applications, especially in assisting the design of similar gravity driven systems for transportation in manufacturing processes. In a small number of the simulations, two kinds of numerically instability are observed. One is characterized by a sudden vertical acceleration of the floating object due to a strong imbalance of the force acting on the body, which occurs when the mass flow of water is weak. The other is characterized by a sudden vertical movement of air-water interface, which occurs when two floating objects become too close together. These new types of numerical instability deserve future studies and clarifications. This study is performed only for a 2-D system. Extension of the numerical framework to a full 3-D setting is recommended as future work.

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Date Created
  • 2018

Sample delivery enabled by 3D printing for reduced sample consumption and mix-and-inject serial crystallography at x-ray free electron lasers

Description

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has enabled the determination of damage-free protein structures at ambient temperatures and of reaction intermediate species with time resolution on

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has enabled the determination of damage-free protein structures at ambient temperatures and of reaction intermediate species with time resolution on the order of hundreds of femtoseconds. However, currently available XFEL facility X-ray pulse structures waste the majority of continuously injected crystal sample, requiring a large quantity (up to grams) of crystal sample to solve a protein structure. Furthermore, mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC) at XFEL facilities requires fast mixing for short (millisecond) reaction time points (𝑡"), and current sample delivery methods have complex fabrication and assembly requirements.

To reduce sample consumption during SFX, a 3D printed T-junction for generating segmented aqueous-in-oil droplets was developed. The device surface properties were characterized both with and without a surface coating for improved droplet generation stability. Additionally, the droplet generation frequency was characterized. The 3D printed device interfaced with gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVNs) at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and a relationship between the aqueous phase volume and the resulting crystal hit rate was developed. Furthermore, at the European XFEL (EuXFEL) a similar quantity and quality of diffraction data was collected for segmented sample delivery using ~60% less sample volume than continuous injection, and a structure of 3-deoxy-D-manno- octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase (KDO8PS) delivered by segmented injection was solved that revealed new structural details to a resolution of 2.8 Å.

For MISC, a 3D printed hydrodynamic focusing mixer for fast mixing by diffusion was developed to automate device fabrication and simplify device assembly. The mixer was characterized with numerical models and fluorescence microscopy. A variety of devices were developed to reach reaction intermediate time points, 𝑡", on the order of 100 – 103 ms. These devices include 3D printed mixers coupled to glass or 3D printed GDVNs and two designs of mixers with GDVNs integrated into the one device. A 3D printed mixer coupled to a glass GDVN was utilized at LCLS to study the oxidation of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), and a structure of the CcO Pr intermediate was determined at 𝑡" = 8 s.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019