Matching Items (11)

Patterns of Breastfeeding and Diet and the Effects on Infant Weight and Growth

Description

The period of time between birth and 24 months of age is a sensitive period for infant growth, and adequate nutrition is vitally important. In this study, 150 Mexican-American mother-and-child

The period of time between birth and 24 months of age is a sensitive period for infant growth, and adequate nutrition is vitally important. In this study, 150 Mexican-American mother-and-child pairs (N = 300) were periodically surveyed over the course of 36 months for demographics, financial status, and feeding practices to understand the feeding methods of Mexican-American families and any relations they may have to the weight and growth of developing infants. Results found that formula feeding had higher rates of usage and duration than breastfeeding, while solid foods were largely introduced at the recommended ages. At one year of age, the infants were predisposed towards overweight and obesity with a high maternal BMI, suggesting that breastfeeding practices were not fully utilized. However, the data did not differentiate between formula and breast milk when both were used at any specific age, making it difficult to determine how long infants were exclusively breastfed and how that would impact their growth.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes of Perinatal Substance Abuse

Description

Objectives: To measure nurses' knowledge of breastfeeding, assess nurses' attitudes towards perinatal substance abuse, and identify the perception of breastfeeding infants affected by neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Design: Descriptive study.

Objectives: To measure nurses' knowledge of breastfeeding, assess nurses' attitudes towards perinatal substance abuse, and identify the perception of breastfeeding infants affected by neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Online survey. Participants: Nurses (N=104) who are members of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) and subscribe to their perinatal listserv were invited to participate via email. Methods: Participants completed a survey, which included a modified version of the Attitudes about Drug Abuse in Pregnancy (AADAP) questionnaire, knowledge questions, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Statistical analysis was conducted. Results: Most nurses (88.46%) have cared for a newborn affected by NAS or their mother before, and every respondent has cared for an opioid-addicted patient. Most nurse respondents (82.69%) reported breastfeeding being a very common topic of discussion with patients, yet 78 (75%) reported being poorly prepared by nursing school in this topic. Despite this, the majority answered the knowledge questions correctly. Most respondents (94.23%) reported that they would assess the possibility of breastfeeding for women who used drugs during pregnancy, and 39.42% expressed that prenatal drug use should be considered child abuse. Conclusion: Despite feeling angry at mothers who perinatally abuse drugs, nurses recognize the benefits of breastfeeding for these patients. Self-assessment can help nurses identify personal bias and implement evidence-based nursing interventions

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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How Adults Assign Gender Labels to Infants in the Absence of Gender Stereotypical Cues

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It has been 30 years since research has tried to determine how adults decide if an infant is male or female (Seavey et al., 1975; Sidorowicz & Lunney, 1980), with

It has been 30 years since research has tried to determine how adults decide if an infant is male or female (Seavey et al., 1975; Sidorowicz & Lunney, 1980), with research at that time indicating that participants tended to label infants as male. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether adults today can identify infant gender above chance, and what tools adults use to assign gender labels to babies. I hypothesize that females, social science majors, students who frequently interact with children, and students who are very confident will all assign gender labels more accurately than their counterparts. I showed a video to University students featuring five sets of parents playing with their infants. The video featuring three male and two female babies was edited to remove any gender identifying information. Students were asked to guess whether each of the infants was male or female, and to explain how they came to that conclusion. One sample t-tests revealed that students overall were able to correctly identify infant gender significantly more than what would be expected due to chance for 4 out of 5 infants. The results did not support my hypothesis that social science majors or people who frequently interact with children are better at assigning gender labels. This study did find a significant correlation between confidence and accuracy. When asked to explain how participants assigned infant gender labels, I found a significant correlation between infant physical movement and correct students labeling the infant as male. There was also a significant relationship between parental voice being and participants labeling infants as female whether the infant was actually female or not. Unlike research from the late 1970's and early 1980's, college students today can accurately assign gender labels to infants. This suggests that either the conceptualization of gender in the U.S. culture has changed enough since previous research over 3 decades ago, that there is something about parent-baby play that helps people correctly identify infant gender, or both.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN MATERNAL PERCEIVED STRESS, CORTISOL REACTIVITY, AND THEIR INFANT'S CORTISOL REACTIVITY

Description

Many stressors today are psychological rather than physical and are influenced by the brain's perception of the stressor. The peripartum period is a particularly volatile time that is susceptible to

Many stressors today are psychological rather than physical and are influenced by the brain's perception of the stressor. The peripartum period is a particularly volatile time that is susceptible to new and stronger stressors. This current study investigates the relationship between self-reported perceived stress levels and physiological cortisol reactivity levels in new mothers at the 12-week postpartum time point. In addition, it examines the relationship between the mother and infants' physiological cortisol reactivity levels at 12-weeks postpartum. This current study is part of a longitudinal study and assessed these two correlations for 181 mother-infant dyads from a low income Mexican American population. The self-reported stress levels were assessed using the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the cortisol reactivity data was gathered using four salivary cortisol samples taken from both mother and infant surrounding 5 interaction tasks and analyzed using Area Under the Curve with respect to ground (AUCg). Unexpectedly, the results found no correlation between perceived and physiological stress levels in the mothers, with a Pearson correlation of 0.114 and a p-value of 0.129. However, there was a positive correlation between mother and infant cortisol reactivity, with a correlation of 0.632 and a p-value less than 0.0001. This early postpartum period plays a significant role in developing HPA axis regulation for infants and developing productive mother-infant interactions. The physiological and psychological risks of chronically elevated stress for both mothers and children were addressed in this study as well, with implications for means to address and mitigate potential cortisol dysregulation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Development of a Clinically Relevant Brochure About the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative

Description

The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was created in 1991 with the goal to provide support and education to mothers on breastfeeding in order to increase the rate and duration

The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was created in 1991 with the goal to provide support and education to mothers on breastfeeding in order to increase the rate and duration of breastfeeding across the world. Despite being around for over 20 years, it has only been successfully incorporated into 245 hospitals in the United States as of 2015. Due to the many benefits this initiative brings to mothers, infants, and the hospitals themselves as well as being shown to increase the incidence, duration, and exclusivity of breastfeeding, the goal of this project was to create a mother friendly brochure sharing this. The brochure was created in order to spread the word of the BFHI to expecting mothers so that they are informed and able to use this information to not only improve their own child-birthing experience but also push for implementation in their delivering facilities. The brochure covers additional topics such as breastfeeding benefits and tips, lactation resources, and steps to incorporate into their own hospital stay if outside of a BFHI facility in order to get a few of the benefits that the Baby Friendly Initiative provides. The brochure was tested for clarity, effectiveness, and for overall reactions in a study conducted at a local women's clinic surveying expectant mothers through the use of a short survey. These results were used to make minor improvements to the brochure before moving on to plans of how to disseminate the brochure to more clinics within the Phoenix area. The dissemination of this brochure will share this important information with women of childbearing age and hopefully lead to greater knowledge and progress towards improved maternal and neonatal outcomes.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

Do 2-Year-Olds Understand Object Permanence?

Description

According to Jean Piaget, a prominent cognitive development psychologist in 1954, infants should have an understanding of object permanence at 12 months of age. Current research has backed this idea

According to Jean Piaget, a prominent cognitive development psychologist in 1954, infants should have an understanding of object permanence at 12 months of age. Current research has backed this idea and shown that children younger than 2 years of age understand object permanence- shown through their increased looking times to inconsistent displays in which a moving object appears to have fallen through a solid shelf. However, current research used active search tasks with 2 year olds and found that they failed to search for the object consistently. My thesis explores why 2 year olds are failing search tasks if infants are appearing the understand object permanence with their looking responses. The Theory of Mind Lab at ASU designed a simple two door/two room apparatus to test 2 year olds’ ability to search for an object once it goes out of sight. Two doors open to two rooms separated by a green wall that extends above the front wall. Results showed that 2-year-olds randomly searched for the object. Perhaps children were not able to clearly differentiate the two separate spaces and ultimately started guessing because they assumed both doors go to the same room. Therefore, my thesis involved adding a ‘hallway’ between the two rooms to help children mentally separate the two spaces by showing them the bottom of the barrier. Despite the hallway, results showed that 2-year-olds again hardly performed above chance across all 6 trials. To remove the social aspects and the need to coordinate motor movement with knowledge of the object’s location, I designed a Visual Anticipation Task with automatic doors that required 2-year olds to merely look at the correct door for the hidden object. Results showed that children looked correctly at the first location correctly but when hidden in a new location in the second trial, perseverated and looked back at the first location. These results showed that 2-year olds do not understand object permanence at this age when it comes to both searching and looking.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Computational Challenges in Non-parametric Prediction of Bradycardia in Preterm Infants

Description

Infants born before 37 weeks of pregnancy are considered to be preterm. Typically, preterm infants have to be strictly monitored since they are highly susceptible to health problems like hypoxemia

Infants born before 37 weeks of pregnancy are considered to be preterm. Typically, preterm infants have to be strictly monitored since they are highly susceptible to health problems like hypoxemia (low blood oxygen level), apnea, respiratory issues, cardiac problems, neurological problems as well as an increased chance of long-term health issues such as cerebral palsy, asthma and sudden infant death syndrome. One of the leading health complications in preterm infants is bradycardia - which is defined as the slower than expected heart rate, generally beating lower than 60 beats per minute. Bradycardia is often accompanied by low oxygen levels and can cause additional long term health problems in the premature infant.The implementation of a non-parametric method to predict the onset of brady- cardia is presented. This method assumes no prior knowledge of the data and uses kernel density estimation to predict the future onset of bradycardia events. The data is preprocessed, and then analyzed to detect the peaks in the ECG signals, following which different kernels are implemented to estimate the shared underlying distribu- tion of the data. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using various metrics and the computational challenges and methods to overcome them are also discussed.
It is observed that the performance of the algorithm with regards to the kernels used are consistent with the theoretical performance of the kernel as presented in a previous work. The theoretical approach has also been automated in this work and the various implementation challenges have been addressed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) spillover effect: do siblings reap the benefits?

Description

Objective: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a federally-funded program that provides supplemental food packages, nutrition education, and healthcare referrals to low-income women, infants,

Objective: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a federally-funded program that provides supplemental food packages, nutrition education, and healthcare referrals to low-income women, infants, and children under 5, who are at the highest nutritional risk. This study explores if household WIC participation is associated with healthier dietary behaviors among age-ineligible children (5-18-years-old) in WIC households. Consumption frequency of fruits, vegetables, 100% juice, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and energy-dense snacks (sweet and salty snacks) among children from WIC and income-qualifying non-WIC households were compared.

Methods: Data were obtained from two cross-sectional panels (2009-10 and 2014) of the New Jersey Child Health Study conducted in four low-income New Jersey cities. Questions from previously validated surveys assessed consumption frequency of fruits, vegetables, SSBs, and sweet and salty snacks. Analyses were confined to 570 children between 5-18 yrs; of which 365 (5-11 yrs: 237, 12-18 yrs: 128) resided in WIC participating households and 205 (5-11 yrs: 138, 12-18 yrs: 67) in income-qualifying non-WIC households. Over half of the sample was African American and 43% were Hispanic. Multivariable analyses were conducted to compute incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using negative binomial regression to compare the differences in eating behaviors of children in WIC vs. Non-WIC households

Results: Household WIC participation was associated with a slightly higher frequency of vegetable consumption among 12-18-year-old children (IRR= 1.25, p=.05); differences were significant among older males (12-18-years-old) (p=.006), and not in females.

Frequency of 100% juice consumption was significantly higher among younger females (5-11-years-old) in WIC households who consumed juice about 44% more frequently (p=.02) compared to similar age girls in non-WIC households. Hispanic children in WIC households reported a lower frequency of SSBs consumption (p=.01); this association was only true among males (p=.02).

Conclusions: Household WIC participation is associated with healthier dietary behaviors among age-ineligible children living in the households, suggesting a positive spillover effect of the program. Proposed changes to WIC packages are likely to have dietary implications not only for WIC participants but also for non-participating children residing in WIC households,

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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An exploration of attitudes and perceptions of cash value vouchers in the Arizona Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Description

In October, 2009, participants of the Arizona Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) began receiving monthly Cash Value Vouchers (CVV) worth between six and 10 dollars

In October, 2009, participants of the Arizona Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) began receiving monthly Cash Value Vouchers (CVV) worth between six and 10 dollars towards the purchase of fresh fruits and vegetables. Data from the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) showed CVV redemption rates in the first two years of the program were lower than the national average of 77% redemption. In response, the ADHS WIC Food List was expanded to also include canned and frozen fruits and vegetables. More recent data from ADHS suggest that redemption rates are improving, but variably exist among different WIC sub-populations. The purpose of this project was to identify themes related to the ease or difficulty of WIC CVV use amongst different categories of low-redeeming WIC participants. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted, four at a clinic in each of two Valley cities: Surprise and Mesa. Each of the four focus groups comprised one of four targeted WIC participant categories: pregnant, postpartum, breastfeeding, and children with participation ranging from 3-9 participants per group. Using the general inductive approach, recordings of the focus groups were transcribed, hand-coded and uploaded into qualitative analysis software resulting in four emergent themes including: interactions and shopping strategies, maximizing WIC value, redemption issues, and effect of rule change. Researchers identified twelve different subthemes related to the emergent theme of interactions and strategies to improve their experience, including economic considerations during redemption. Barriers related to interactions existed that made their purchase difficult, most notably anger from the cashier and other shoppers. However, participants made use of a number of strategies to facilitate WIC purchases or extract more value out of WIC benefits, such as pooling their CVV. Finally, it appears that the fruit and vegetable rule change was well received by those who were aware of the change. These data suggest a number of important avenues for future research, including verifying these themes are important within a larger, representative sample of Arizona WIC participants, and exploring strategies to minimize barriers identified by participants, such as use of electronic benefits transfer-style cards (EBT).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Prenatal stress and infant regulatory capacity

Description

The development of self-regulation is believed to play a crucial role in predicting later psychopathology and is believed to begin in early childhood. The early postpartum period is particularly important

The development of self-regulation is believed to play a crucial role in predicting later psychopathology and is believed to begin in early childhood. The early postpartum period is particularly important in laying the groundwork for later self-regulation as infants' dispositional traits interact with caregivers' co-regulatory behaviors to produce the earliest forms of self-regulation. Moreover, although emerging literature suggests that infants' exposure to maternal stress even before birth may be integral in determining children's self-regulatory capacities, the complex pathways that characterize these developmental processes remain unclear. The current study considers the complex, transactional processes in a high-risk, Mexican American sample. Data were collected from 305 Mexican American infants and their mothers during prenatal, 6- and 12-week home interviews. Mother self-reports of stress were obtained prenatally between 34-37 weeks gestation. Mother reports of infant temperamental negativity and surgency were obtained at 6-weeks as were observed global ratings of maternal sensitivity during a structured peek-a-boo task. Microcoded ratings of infants' engagement orienting and self-comforting behaviors were obtained during the 12-week peek-a-boo task. Study findings suggest that self-comforting and orienting behaviors help to modulate infants' experiences of distress, and also that prenatal stress influences infants' engagement in each of those regulatory behaviors, both directly by influence tendencies to engage in orienting behaviors and indirectly by programming higher levels of infant negativity and surgency, both of which may confer risk for later regulatory disadvantage. Advancing our understandings about the nature of these developmental pathways could have significant implications for targets of early intervention in this high-risk population.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013