Matching Items (6)

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Investigation of Parameters that Affect Capsaicin Stability During Culinary Techniques

Description

Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin account for 90% of capsaicinoids when it comes to the pungency of peppers. Capsaicin stability was investigated through a cooking and storage parameter where three different tests

Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin account for 90% of capsaicinoids when it comes to the pungency of peppers. Capsaicin stability was investigated through a cooking and storage parameter where three different tests were done; cooking duration, cooking temperature, and storage stability. The concentration of capsaicinoids was quantified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry where those values were then used to determine the total Scoville heat units (SHU). Furthermore, half-life was determined by finding the decay rate during cooking and storage. Results showed that there was an increase in degradation of capsaicinoids concentration when peppers were cooked for a long period of time. Degradation rate increases with increasing temperatures as would be expected by the Arrhenius equation. Hence, if a maximum pungency is wanted, it is best to cook the least time as possible or add the peppers towards the end of the culinary technique. This would help by cooking the peppers for a short period of time while not being exposed to the high temperature long enough before significant degradation occurs. Lastly, the storage stability results interpreted that a maximum potency of the peppers can be retained in a freezer or refrigerator opposed to an open room temperature environment or exposure from the sun. Furthermore, the stability of peppers has a long shelf life with even that the worse storage condition's half-life value was 113.5 months (9.5 years). Thus, peppers do not need to be bought frequently because its potency will last for several years.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Computational Modeling of Solar Thermal Energy Storage Systems Using Graphene Foams

Description

In an hour, the Earth is impacted with enough solar energy to power the world for an entire year. The best way to expend this renewable source of energy is

In an hour, the Earth is impacted with enough solar energy to power the world for an entire year. The best way to expend this renewable source of energy is by storing solar power. Many solar energy harvesting methods only produce power when directly exposed to sunlight. This issue can be resolved by implementing thermal energy storage (TES) systems. This paper presents a novel method for increasing the efficiency of TES systems for building applications. Efficiency is determined by two main factors: heat storage capacity and thermal conductivity. Although latent systems have lower energy storage densities than other types of heat storage technologies, they are an inexpensive and sustainable energy harvesting system. Additionally, the disadvantage associated with lower energy density can be counteracted by improving the charging rate of latent energy storage systems. Therefore, this work focuses on Latent TES systems and how to improve their efficiencies. This paper presents a novel approach for increasing the thermal conductivity of latent heat storage systems using graphene foams. The high thermal conductivity of graphene foam will help counteract the low conductivity of the PCMs with a small sacrifice of the effective latent heat. The expected effect is a doubled charging rate and increased efficiency within the heat storage system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Dispatch of bulk energy storage in power systems with wind generation

Description

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy

This thesis concerns the impact of energy storage on the power system. The rapidly increasing integration of renewable energy source into the grid is driving greater attention towards electrical energy storage systems which can serve many applications like economically meeting peak loads, providing spinning reserve. Economic dispatch is performed with bulk energy storage with wind energy penetration in power systems allocating the generation levels to the units in the mix, so that the system load is served and most economically. The results obtained in previous research to solve for economic dispatch uses a linear cost function for a Direct Current Optimal Power Flow (DCOPF). This thesis uses quadratic cost function for a DCOPF implementing quadratic programming (QP) to minimize the function. A Matlab program was created to simulate different test systems including an equivalent section of the WECC system, namely for Arizo-na, summer peak 2009. A mathematical formulation of a strategy of when to charge or discharge the storage is incorporated in the algorithm. In this thesis various test cases are shown in a small three bus test bed and also for the state of Arizona test bed. The main conclusions drawn from the two test beds is that the use of energy storage minimizes the generation dispatch cost of the system and benefits the power sys-tem by serving the peak partially from stored energy. It is also found that use of energy storage systems may alleviate the loading on transmission lines which can defer the upgrade and expansion of the transmission system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Analysis and design of native file system enhancements for storage class memory

Description

As persistent non-volatile memory solutions become integrated in the computing ecosystem and landscape, traditional commodity file systems architected and developed for traditional block I/O based memory solutions must be reevaluated.

As persistent non-volatile memory solutions become integrated in the computing ecosystem and landscape, traditional commodity file systems architected and developed for traditional block I/O based memory solutions must be reevaluated. A majority of commodity file systems have been architected and designed with the goal of managing data on non-volatile storage devices such as hard disk drives (HDDs) and solid state drives (SSDs). HDDs and SSDs are attached to a computing system via a controller or I/O hub, often referred to as the southbridge. The point of HDD and SSD attachment creates multiple levels of translation for any data managed by the CPU that must be stored in non-volatile memory (NVM) on an HDD or SSD. Storage Class Memory (SCM) devices provide the ability to store data at the CPU and DRAM level of a computing system. A novel set of modifications to the ext2 and ext4 commodity file systems to address the needs of SCM will be presented and discussed. An in-depth analysis of many existing file systems, from multiple sources, will be presented along with an analysis to identify key modifications and extensions that would be necessary to execute file system on SCM devices. From this analysis, modifications and extensions have been applied to the FAT commodity file system for key functional tests that will be presented to demonstrate the operation and execution of the file system extensions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Design and Optimization of Resistive RAM-based Storage and Computing Systems

Description

The Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) is an emerging non-volatile memory

technology because of its attractive attributes, including excellent scalability (< 10 nm), low

programming voltage (< 3 V), fast switching speed

The Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) is an emerging non-volatile memory

technology because of its attractive attributes, including excellent scalability (< 10 nm), low

programming voltage (< 3 V), fast switching speed (< 10 ns), high OFF/ON ratio (> 10),

good endurance (up to 1012 cycles) and great compatibility with silicon CMOS technology [1].

However, ReRAM suffers from larger write latency, energy and reliability issue compared to

Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM). To improve the energy-efficiency, latency efficiency and reliability of ReRAM storage systems, a low cost cross-layer approach that spans device, circuit, architecture and system levels is proposed.

For 1T1R 2D ReRAM system, the effect of both retention and endurance errors on

ReRAM reliability is considered. Proposed approach is to design circuit-level and architecture-level techniques to reduce raw Bit Error Rate significantly and then employ low cost Error Control Coding to achieve the desired lifetime.

For 1S1R 2D ReRAM system, a cross-point array with “multi-bit per access” per subarray

is designed for high energy-efficiency and good reliability. The errors due to cell-level as well

as array-level variations are analyzed and a low cost scheme to maintain reliability and latency

with low energy consumption is proposed.

For 1S1R 3D ReRAM system, access schemes which activate multiple subarrays with

multiple layers in a subarray are used to achieve high energy efficiency through activating fewer

subarray, and good reliability is achieved through innovative data organization.

Finally, a novel ReRAM-based accelerator design is proposed to support multiple

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) topologies including VGGNet, AlexNet and ResNet.

The multi-tiled architecture consists of 9 processing elements per tile, where each tile

implements the dot product operation using ReRAM as computation unit. The processing

elements operate in a systolic fashion, thereby maximizing input feature map reuse and

minimizing interconnection cost. The system-level evaluation on several network benchmarks

show that the proposed architecture can improve computation efficiency and energy efficiency

compared to a state-of-the-art ReRAM-based accelerator.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Deregulated real-time pricing for the promotion of distributed renewables

Description

This thesis pursues a method to deregulate the electric distribution system and provide support to distributed renewable generation. A locational marginal price is used to determine prices across a distribution

This thesis pursues a method to deregulate the electric distribution system and provide support to distributed renewable generation. A locational marginal price is used to determine prices across a distribution network in real-time. The real-time pricing may provide benefits such as a reduced electricity bill, decreased peak demand, and lower emissions. This distribution locational marginal price (D-LMP) determines the cost of electricity at each node in the electrical network. The D-LMP is comprised of the cost of energy, cost of losses, and a renewable energy premium. The renewable premium is an adjustable function to compensate `green' distributed generation. A D-LMP is derived and formulated from the PJM model, as well as several alternative formulations. The logistics and infrastructure an implementation is briefly discussed. This study also takes advantage of the D-LMP real-time pricing to implement distributed storage technology. A storage schedule optimization is developed using linear programming. Day-ahead LMPs and historical load data are used to determine a predictive optimization. A test bed is created to represent a practical electric distribution system. Historical load, solar, and LMP data are used in the test bed to create a realistic environment. A power flow and tabulation of the D-LMPs was conducted for twelve test cases. The test cases included various penetrations of solar photovoltaics (PV), system networking, and the inclusion of storage technology. Tables of the D-LMPs and network voltages are presented in this work. The final costs are summed and the basic economics are examined. The use of a D-LMP can lower costs across a system when advanced technologies are used. Storage improves system costs, decreases losses, improves system load factor, and bolsters voltage. Solar energy provides many of these same attributes at lower penetrations, but high penetrations have a detrimental effect on the system. System networking also increases these positive effects. The D-LMP has a positive impact on residential customer cost, while greatly increasing the costs for the industrial sector. The D-LMP appears to have many positive impacts on the distribution system but proper cost allocation needs further development.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011