Matching Items (13)

134403-Thumbnail Image.png

Arizona State University Forensic Science Center (ASU-FSC)

Description

Currently, Arizona State University's West Campus offers students a Bachelor's of Science degree in Forensics. This degree program has been at ASU's West campus for over three years now and

Currently, Arizona State University's West Campus offers students a Bachelor's of Science degree in Forensics. This degree program has been at ASU's West campus for over three years now and is at its capacity of 300 students due to limitations on lab space. In order to support the growth and provide students with a valuable experience, the Math and Natural Sciences department seeks to create a "fee-for-service" enterprise within the Forensics division. This new lab called the Arizona State University Forensic Science Center (ASU-FSC) would serve city, county, state, and federal government agencies. The mission of the ASU-FSC is to provide robust, accurate and efficient forensic services while leading innovation in research and education in forensics for Arizona, the Southwest and the country. The School of Natural Science and Mathematics has sought help from W. P. Carey School of Business students to analyze the possibility of adding a Forensics fee-for-service lab to ASU West campus. The deliverables from this report will provide a comprehensive marketing, supply chain and financial review of all aspects of the business, and will aid in the decision making process for the creation of the Arizona State University Forensic Science Center.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

134861-Thumbnail Image.png

Ancestry Estimation in Forensic Anthropology: Osteological vs. Molecular Methods and Social Implications

Description

Ancestry estimation in forensic anthropology has been one of the most complex determinations to make from the human skeleton. There is a long history in biological anthropology using different morphological

Ancestry estimation in forensic anthropology has been one of the most complex determinations to make from the human skeleton. There is a long history in biological anthropology using different morphological characteristics from the skull and other areas of the skeleton but it remains a difficult estimation that always has some variability. Currently, more studies have been conducted in morphological and metric methods from the skull of ancestry estimation to better the accuracy of the determination. Since most forensic cases are not in the best condition, there also must be other estimation methods from other bones from the remains such as the cervical vertebrae and the femur. These methods have some degree of accuracy but are not as commonly used in forensic cases as the skull is. It seems that the best method for ancestry estimation is to use a combination of multiple methods, having multiple lines of evidence. With the advent of DNA, many researchers have started to study the use of DNA in ancestry estimation. Genetics can be used in ancestry estimation as certain populations have allele frequencies that can be quantified. Using ancestry informative markers (AIMS), DNA can be used to estimate the ancestry of an individual as well as the amount of admixture in the individual. Many different methods have been tested in genetic evaluation of ancestry and have been supported with good accuracy. However, DNA analysis is expensive and time consuming, putting more reliance on osteological methods. Social implications have had a tremendous impact on the fate of ancestry estimation in forensic anthropology. Anthropology has generally rejected the notion of races but it is still used in forensics due to how much it is inculcated into everyday society. Also, the overarching theme of admixture is becoming more prevalent in society. This causes the estimations in forensic anthropology to be extremely difficult. If more research into ancestry estimation does not continue, the determination will almost be impossible to be made.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

133871-Thumbnail Image.png

Calculative Thought with a Meditative Purpose: Forensic Science and Hermeneutic Thought

Description

As human beings we go through the world interpreting – seeing a situation, gathering context, and making a decision on the meaning of the thing we just experienced. The philosopher

As human beings we go through the world interpreting – seeing a situation, gathering context, and making a decision on the meaning of the thing we just experienced. The philosopher Martin Heidegger calls this way of being hermeneutics – a practice of interpretation. This method of approach does not ignore a person’s bias, instead bias is highlighted, understood, and possibly even overcome. In the following pages the basic definition and process of hermeneutics will be discussed. Leading into the difference between calculative and meditative thought – scientific and philosophical – in order to later discuss the possibility and need to merge the two in the field of Forensic Science. Forensic Scientist uses hermeneutic thought by way of merging calculative and meditative thinking. In order to support this claim artistic renderings of ‘the pieces of an unknowable whole’ were created to literally illustrate this truth.
Forensic science is tasked with using calculative thinking with scientifically accepted methods of measurement and detection as well as the meditative task of applying their data to messy, real-world events. In order to support my supposition of forensic scientists being hermeneutical workers, three paintings were created. The three paintings can be considered a tryptic of sorts due to the context in which they are presented: forensic science. They each tell a story that is weaved within each other – spatter indicating violence long past, the empty void of a body gone, and the cold decomposition of a victim found. It is the forensic scientist that must interpret each piece separately and is tasked with finding how and why they are put together. The hermeneutical work of the forensic scientist interpreting a crime scene uses the same methods as one who interprets text. A forensic scientist opens possibilities of meaning in the same way that Martin Heidegger’s hermeneutic circle does. There is interplay between the interpreter (the forensic scientist) and the text (the crime scene), questions are formed (what happened here?) and responses are made (evidence found at the scene). This question and response outlook is what make the forensic scientist a hermeneutic thinker.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

133705-Thumbnail Image.png

Emergence of New Technology and Statistical Analysis to Explore Aging Patterns in Latent Fingerprint Analysis

Description

Abstract Latent fingerprints are a critical component of the evidence that is captured and analyzed from crime scenes and presented for convictions in court. Although fingerprint science has been used

Abstract Latent fingerprints are a critical component of the evidence that is captured and analyzed from crime scenes and presented for convictions in court. Although fingerprint science has been used for many years in forensics, it is not without many criticisms and critiques from those that believe it is too subjective. Researchers from many disciplines have tried to refute this claim by completing experiments that would eventually lead to a fingerprint aging technique as well as providing statistical models and mathematical support. In this literature review, the research that has been widely published and talked about in this field was reviewed and analyzed to determine what aspects of the experiments are benefitting the study of degradation. By carefully combing through the methods and results of each study, it can be determined where future focuses should be and what disciplines need to be exploited for knowledge. Lastly, an important aspect of the experiments in recent years have depended on the collaboration with statistics so this evidence was examined to identify what models are realistic in determining error rates and likelihood ratios to support latent fingerprint evidence in court. After a thorough review, it is seen that although large strides have been taken to study the degradation of fingerprints, the day where fingerprints will be able to be definitively aged may be ways away. The current experiments have provided methods such as three-dimensional and visual parameters that could potentially find the solution, but also uncovered methods such as immunolabeling and chemical composition that face major challenges. From the statistically point of view, researchers are very close in developing equations that exploit the likelihood ratios of similarity and even calculate the various possible error rates. The evidence found in this review shows that science is one step closer to the age determination of fingerprints.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

137581-Thumbnail Image.png

From Standard Protocol to Virtual Autopsy: The Advancement of Forensic Pathology

Description

Forensic pathologists investigate unnatural or suspicious deaths in medico-legal cases and must be accurate and thorough in their analyses so that justice can prevail. This occupation, however, is immensely difficult,

Forensic pathologists investigate unnatural or suspicious deaths in medico-legal cases and must be accurate and thorough in their analyses so that justice can prevail. This occupation, however, is immensely difficult, and mistakes can occur. These challenges are discussed here with suggestions for improvement. Implementing new technologies, better quality control, more research, and standardization of procedures are just a few of the multiple changes that can enhance forensic pathology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

148066-Thumbnail Image.png

The Persistence of Blood Across Various Substrates

Description

The subcategory of evidence deemed trace evidence is frequently seen in crime scenes, and while it is commonly the smallest evidence around, that doesn’t stop it from greatly contributing to

The subcategory of evidence deemed trace evidence is frequently seen in crime scenes, and while it is commonly the smallest evidence around, that doesn’t stop it from greatly contributing to the findings at the scene. Blood evidence may be categorized into this group in certain cases at crime scenes, especially in cases of transfer between two objects or people. In this study, the transfer of blood across both porous and non-porous substrates was examined to determine the persistence of blood across both substrates. The resulting stains after each trial of transfers were tested with a presumptive blood test commonly used in crime labs, the Kastle-Meyer test. Throughout all trials of the experiment, it was determined that blood on a non-porous surface typically dries faster as long as there isn’t a pooling effect, which hinders the ability for a stain to be continuously transferred and detected by Kastle-Meyer. Conversely, porous substrates are more likely to absorb and retain the blood in the material, allowing the blood to be released when pressure is applied, causing the stain to transfer more easily and result in a stain that will produce a positive Kastle-Meyer result.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

133529-Thumbnail Image.png

Distinguishing Post Mortem Faunal Predation from Intentional Sharp Force Trauma

Description

Due to the nature of animals, even domesticated pets, animal scavenging of human remains is an important taphonomic factor. This area of study has, however, been undercounted in the current

Due to the nature of animals, even domesticated pets, animal scavenging of human remains is an important taphonomic factor. This area of study has, however, been undercounted in the current literature. The purpose of this study was to begin the first step in creating a taphonomic profile for urban / household animal scavenging as distinguishable from manmade tool marks. Using volunteered animals and regularly available tools, alterations were made on beef ribs in order to characterize the distinguishing profiles between the two groups. It was found that animal scavenging alterations, in the short term (20 minutes used in this study) have a distinctly different appearance than tool mark alterations. Animal scavenging has less visible alterations, consistent bite morphology across different species, and symmetrical cut marks along the midsection of the long bones. Ultimately, this study was a successful first step in furthering taphonomic alteration database research across various biomes and conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

132445-Thumbnail Image.png

From Report to Prosecution: A Comprehensive Approach to Sexual Assault Response in Arizona

Description

Every minute and a half, an American is sexually assaulted (Department of Justice, 2017). After an instance of sexual assault, some victims are given the choice of having a

Every minute and a half, an American is sexually assaulted (Department of Justice, 2017). After an instance of sexual assault, some victims are given the choice of having a sexual assault evidence kit (SAK) collected. These kits are designed to collect DNA evidence that will, in the best case scenario, result in the identification of the perpetrator. If the perpetrator cannot be located, the DNA profile can still be submitted to the FBI’s CODIS databank, which houses hundreds of thousands of DNA profiles from criminal cases, and may still lead to apprehension of the rapist. Unfortunately, some SAKs experience long delays, decades even, before being tested. To date, there are hundreds of thousands of untested SAKs that remain in police custody awaiting to be submitted for forensic profiling across the country. Here, we completed a holistic investigation of sexual assault response and SAK processing in Arizona. It is important to notice that the focus of our study not only includes SAK processing and the backlog but sexual assault prevention and improving victim reporting in an effort to understand the SAK “pipeline,” from assault to prosecution.
We identified problems in three major categories that negatively impact the SAK pipeline: historical inertia, legislative and institutional limitations, and community awareness. We found that a large number of SAKs in Arizona have remained untested due insufficient funding and staffing for public crime labs making it difficult for state labs to alleviate the SAK backlog while simultaneously responding to incoming cases (“Why the Backlog Exists,” n.d.). However, surveys of ASU undergraduate students revealed a significant interest in campus assault and the SAK backlog. Based on our findings, we suggest harnessing the interest of undergraduate students and recruiting them to specialized SAK-oriented forensic technician and sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) training at ASU with the goal of creating a workforce that will alleviate the absence of trained professionals within the country. We also explore the possibility of the creation of a private crime laboratory at ASU devoted the processing of SAKs in Arizona as a measure of alleviating the demand on local public laboratories and providing a more economic alternative to commercial laboratories. The creation of an SAK laboratory at ASU would provide undergraduates the opportunity to learn more about real forensic analysis on campus, provide a pipeline for students to become technicians themselves, and help reduce and prevent a future SAK backlog in Arizona.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

135657-Thumbnail Image.png

Blood Spatter: Does Size Matter?

Description

Bloodstain pattern analysis can provide telling evidence from a crime scene based on the clues left in the blood, but the field itself is highly problematic since the evidence extracted

Bloodstain pattern analysis can provide telling evidence from a crime scene based on the clues left in the blood, but the field itself is highly problematic since the evidence extracted is dependent upon the interpretation of the analyst. Although some aspects of this type of analysis have been scientifically supported, most are not seen as positively accurate. Since certainty is the basis for acceptance of courtroom testimony, it is important that these unsettled aspects become more understood. This experiment examines the diameter of a weapon and how it affects its cast-off pattern. Weapons with four different diameters were used to generate 5 sample patterns under controlled conditions from each weapon diameter for a total of 20 patterns consisting of 3,367 droplets. The length and width of the pattern, the total number of droplets in the pattern, and the percentage of each droplet type (classified into low-velocity, medium-velocity, and high-velocity droplets) were recorded, averaged, and compared to each other individually using a t-test difference of two means assuming unequal variances. The results reveal that a higher percentage of droplets greater than 4 mm may indicate the use of a weapon with a wider diameter. The data also shows differences between the weapons that may be related to other factors besides the diameter of the weapon such as surface area or the curvature of the weapon. Still, more testing must be conducted to support these theories.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

136523-Thumbnail Image.png

Integrating Forensic Tools for Collaborative Forensic Analysis

Description

Cyber threats are growing in number and sophistication making it important to continually study and improve all dimensions of digital forensics. Teamwork in forensic analysis has been overlooked in systems

Cyber threats are growing in number and sophistication making it important to continually study and improve all dimensions of digital forensics. Teamwork in forensic analysis has been overlooked in systems even though forensics relies on collaboration. Forensic analysis lacks a system that is flexible and available on different electronic devices which are being used and incorporated into everyday life. For instance, cellphones or tablets that are easy to bring on-the-go to sites where the first steps of forensic analysis is done. Due to the present day conversion to online accessibility, most electronic devices connect to the internet. Squeegee is a proof of concept that forensic analysis can be done on the web. The forensic analysis expansion to the web opens many doors to collaboration and accessibility.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05