Matching Items (17)

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Impact of Family Support on Early Childhood Dysregulation in the Context of Maternal Depression

Description

The ability to regulate emotions, attention, and behavior develops early in life and impacts future academic success, social competency, behavioral problems, and psychopathology. An impairment in regulation is known as

The ability to regulate emotions, attention, and behavior develops early in life and impacts future academic success, social competency, behavioral problems, and psychopathology. An impairment in regulation is known as dysregulation. Past research shows that children of mothers with postpartum depression are more likely to show impairment in regulatory abilities. There is an established link in the literature between family support and maternal depression, which in turn can impact child behavior. However, further research is needed to explore the impact of family support on early childhood dysregulation in the context of maternal depression. Using a sample of 322 Mexican-American, mother-child dyads, two models were examined. Model one hypothesized family support would buffer the effects of maternal depression on child dysregulation at 24 months. Model 2 hypothesized that family support is related to child dysregulation through its effect on maternal depression. Results showed that increased family support was related to more child dysregulation when there were high levels of maternal depression. There was no evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal depression mediated the relationship between family support and child dysregulation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Banking Regulation: An Analysis of Dodd-Frank

Description

Dodd-Frank should be celebrated for its success in stabilizing the financial sector following the last financial crisis. Some of its measures have not only contained financial disaster but contributed to

Dodd-Frank should be celebrated for its success in stabilizing the financial sector following the last financial crisis. Some of its measures have not only contained financial disaster but contributed to economic growth. These elements of Dodd-Frank have been identified as "clear wins" and include the increase of financial institutions' capital requirements, the single-point-of-entry approach to regulating financial firms, and the creation of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). The single-point-of-entry strategy (SPOE), specifically, has done much to bring an end to the age of "too big to fail" institutions. By identifying firms that could expect to be aided in case of financial crisis, the SPOE approach reduces uncertainty among financial institutions. Moreover, SPOE eliminates the significant source of risk by establishing clear protocols for resolving failed financial firms. Dodd-Frank has also taken measures to better protect consumers with the creation of the CFPB. Some of the CFPB's stabilizing actions have included the removal of deceptive financial products, setting guidelines for qualified mortgages, and other regulatory safeguards on money transfers. Despite the CFPB's many triumphs, however, there is room for improvement, especially in the agency's ability to reduce regulatory redundancies in supervision and collaboration with other financial sector controllers. The significant strengths of Dodd-Frank are evident in its elements that have secured financial stability. However, it is important to also consider any potential to stifle healthy economic growth. There are several areas for legislative amendments and reforms in order to improve the performance of Dodd-Frank given its sweeping regulatory impact. Several governing redundancies now exist with the creation of new regulatory authorities. Special efforts to increase the authority of the Financial Sector Oversight Council (FSOC) and preserving the impartiality of the Office of Financial Research (OFR) are specific examples of reforms still needed to elevate the effectiveness of Dodd-Frank. In addition, Dodd-Frank could do more to clarify the Volcker Rule in order to ease banks' burden to comply with excessive oversight. Going forward, policymakers must be willing to adjust parts of Dodd-Frank that encroach too far on the private sector's ability to foster efficiency or development. In addition, identifying and monitoring areas of the legislation deemed "too soon to tell" will provide insight on the accuracy and benefit of some Dodd-Frank measures.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Investigation of FAA Research and Regulation of Insulin-Treated Diabetic Pilots

Description

The field of study that this topic is derived from constitutes both federal aviation regulation as well as medical and biological sciences. The compelling idea of this thesis is an

The field of study that this topic is derived from constitutes both federal aviation regulation as well as medical and biological sciences. The compelling idea of this thesis is an in depth investigation of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) regulation and data collection throughout time regarding pilots with Insulin Treated Diabetes Mellitus (ITDM). When in comparison to the continuous evolution of diabetic research and endocrinology in all parts of the world, the regulations regarding this group of pilots seems displaced. This paper explores a chronological order of FAA research and regulations that were conducted on diabetic pilots stemming from 1959 - present. The findings seem to convey that the field of aviation is laden with inconsistencies and misplaced conclusions regarding regulation of insulin-treated diabetic pilots. This paper reflects on the impact of these regulations on this group of pilots from both a biological and medical standpoint as well as from an aviation point of view. In light of advanced medical knowledge, the paper explores what regulations regarding ITDM are in other countries and how FAA regulation should be refined and altered to realign with present day medical knowledge in the United States. This research was conducted to compare the sequential endocrinologic knowledge conducted and the subsequent regulatory actions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Investigation of FAA Research and Regulation of Insulin-Treated Diabetic Pilots

Description

The field of study that this topic is derived from constitutes both federal aviation regulation as well as medical and biological sciences. The compelling idea of this thesis is an

The field of study that this topic is derived from constitutes both federal aviation regulation as well as medical and biological sciences. The compelling idea of this thesis is an in depth investigation of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) regulation and data collection throughout time regarding pilots with Insulin Treated Diabetes Mellitus (ITDM). When in comparison to the continuous evolution of diabetic research and endocrinology in all parts of the world, the regulations regarding this group of pilots seems displaced. This paper explores a chronological order of FAA research and regulations that were conducted on diabetic pilots stemming from 1959 - present. The findings seem to convey that the field of aviation is laden with inconsistencies and misplaced conclusions regarding regulation of insulin-treated diabetic pilots. This paper reflects on the impact of these regulations on this group of pilots from both a biological and medical standpoint as well as from an aviation point of view. In light of advanced medical knowledge, the paper explores what regulations regarding ITDM are in other countries and how FAA regulation should be refined and altered to realign with present day medical knowledge in the United States. This research was conducted to compare the sequential endocrinologic knowledge conducted and the subsequent regulatory actions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Impact of In-Utero Dexamethasone on Autonomic Regulation in Adulthood

Description

Premature babies are at risk of death from immature lung development. For this reason, pregnant mothers at risk for preterm delivery are administered dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid that promotes

Premature babies are at risk of death from immature lung development. For this reason, pregnant mothers at risk for preterm delivery are administered dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid that promotes fetal lung development. However, exposure to DEX in utero is associated with low birth weight and cardiovascular development pathologies. Moreover, our lab found that DEX administration in-utero leads to a sex-specific increase in stress-induced tachycardia in female, but not male offspring. This project seeks to expand on this preliminary finding of the heart by examining local effectors of activity from the sympathetic system (tyrosine hydroxylase and catechol-o-methyltransferase). Tyrosine hydroxylase was measured as it catalyzes the rate limiting step of norepinephrine synthesis while catechol-O- methyltransferase was studied as it catalyzes the degradation of norepinephrine. Acetylcholinesterase was used to measure parasympathetic activity as it catalyzes the degradation of the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system, acetylcholine. Analyses of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic activity were done to determine influences of in-utero DEX exposure on autonomic regulation in adulthood. Pregnant rats were administered DEX (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (20% w/v 2-hydroxypropyl ß- cyclodextran) at gestation days 18-21, with euthanasia of offspring occurring at around the time the offspring reached 13-15 weeks of age. Left ventricles and right atria were pulverized, processed and subjected to western blot analysis to determine expression of proteins of interest. Males exposed to DEX in-utero saw a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase expression in left ventricle and right atrium when compared to vehicle control, a difference not seen with females. In addition, catechol-o-methyltransferase expression was increased in right atria from male, but not female rats. Acetylcholinesterase expression was reduced in the right atria of female, but not male rats. The present findings suggest reduced norepinephrine signaling in the heart of male, but not female DEX-exposed offspring. Given that we have previously found that female, but not male rats exhibit exaggerated stress-induced tachycardia, our current findings suggest that males possess a sex-specific compensatory mechanism allowing the heart to resist increased sympathetic signaling from the brain, one that females do not possess. The underlying mechanics of this proposed mechanism are unclear, and further investigation is needed in this subject to determine the significance of the findings from our study.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

Mapping the Implications of AI and Machine Learning in the Healthcare Market

Description

Within the last decade, there has been a lot of hype surrounding the potential medical applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technologies. During the same timespan, big

Within the last decade, there has been a lot of hype surrounding the potential medical applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technologies. During the same timespan, big tech companies such as Microsoft, Apple, Amazon, and Google have entered the healthcare market as developers of health-based AI and ML technologies. This project aims to create a comprehensive map of the existing health-AI market landscape for the standard biotech reader and to provide a critical commentary on the existing market structure.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Data-Driven Democracy: Federal and State Approaches to Regulating Consumer Data Used in Political Campaigning

Description

As political campaigning becomes increasingly digital and data-driven, data privacy has become a question of democratic governance. Yet, Congress has yet to pass a comprehensive federal data privacy law and

As political campaigning becomes increasingly digital and data-driven, data privacy has become a question of democratic governance. Yet, Congress has yet to pass a comprehensive federal data privacy law and even the strongest subnational data privacy laws exempt political campaigns from regulation. <br/><br/>This thesis examines how data privacy laws impact data-driven and digital political campaigning. Specifically, it investigates what information is incorporated into the political data ecosystem, how data privacy laws regulate the collection of this data, and how actors in the political data ecosystem respond to these laws. It examines both sector-specific federal law and subnational data protection regulation through a case study of California. This research suggests that although the California Consumer Privacy Act and California Privacy Rights Act are landmark steps in American data protection, subnational data privacy law remains inhibited by the federal market-based approach.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Shortcomings in Regulation for Advertising of Financial Instruments

Description

Advertisements for financial instruments such as car loans, title loans, and rental agreements create the complex problem of presenting substantial loan agreement terms while also keeping an advertisement light and

Advertisements for financial instruments such as car loans, title loans, and rental agreements create the complex problem of presenting substantial loan agreement terms while also keeping an advertisement light and inviting. There are two main types of rules concerning how these advertisers can promote their products: regulation and guidance. Regulation is the official set of laws governing what can or must be said in an advertisement. Guidance is official suggestions for proper advertising practices that are not tied to written laws. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) controls regulation for the required disclosure in these advertisements and requires all material loan terms to be stated “clearly and conspicuously; however, advertisers still put important loan information in hard to see the fine print, making it difficult for the consumer to understand the advertisement. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is in charge of creating guidance, enforcing advertising regulation and preventing advertisements from becoming deceptive, but, due to the ambiguous nature of disclosure formatting requirements, many transgressions go uninhibited.

We conducted a survey to test consumer's perception and understanding of advertisements promoting financial instruments to see if advertisements that have run without contest from the Federal Trade Commission still have the ability to be deceptive or lack disclosure. We provided a variety of advertisements for markets such as automobiles and rent-to-own businesses. Each one of these advertisements dealt with a different financial instrument so that we could accurately test the knowledge of respondents. We collected 95 complete responses and 23 partial responses from our distribution of this survey.

Advertisements for financial instruments such as car loans, title loans, and rental agreements create the complex problem of presenting substantial loan agreement terms while also keeping an advertisement light and inviting. There are two main types of rules concerning how these advertisers can promote their products: regulation and guidance. Regulation is the official set of laws governing what can or must be said in an advertisement. Guidance is official suggestions of proper advertising practices that is not tied to written laws. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) controls regulation for the required disclosure in these advertisements and requires all material loan terms to be stated “clearly and conspicuously; however, advertisers still put important loan information in hard to see fine print, making it difficult for the consumer to understand the advertisement. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is in charge of creating guidance, enforcing advertising regulation and preventing advertisements from becoming deceptive, but, due to the ambiguous nature of disclosure formatting requirements, many transgressions go uninhibited.

We conducted a survey to test consumer's perception and understanding of advertisements promoting financial instruments to see if advertisements that have run without contest from the Federal Trade Commission still have the ability to be deceptive or lack disclosure. We provided a variety of advertisements for markets such as automobiles and rent-to-own businesses. Each one of these advertisements dealt with a different financial instrument so that we could accurately test the knowledge of respondents. We collected 95 complete responses and 23 partial responses from our distribution of this survey.

The results show that the average consumer does not have a complete understanding of financial instruments in the context of these advertisements. These results also demonstrated that consumers are not completely comprehending the information provided to them by these advertisements. We found that in some cases, it was the way that information was provided to the consumer that was causing them to have misconceptions about the information presented. We concluded that there were enough respondents that did not correctly interpret these advertisements to support that there is some misleading and deception by these advertisements despite the lack of context by the FTC. As such, we suggest that current federal guidance be made into official regulation to further prevent these transgressions and further attempts be made to locate and prevent deceptive advertisements.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The Data Arms Race: Reimagining Data Transparency, Ethics and Regulations

Description

Data has quickly become a cornerstone of society. Across our daily lives, industry, policy, and more, we are experiencing what can only be called a “data revolution” igniting ferociously. While

Data has quickly become a cornerstone of society. Across our daily lives, industry, policy, and more, we are experiencing what can only be called a “data revolution” igniting ferociously. While data is gaining more and more importance, consumers do not fully understand the extent of its use and subsequent capitalization by companies. This paper explores the current climate relating to data security and data privacy. It aims to start a conversation regarding the culture around the sharing and collection of data. We explore aspects of data privacy in four tiers: the current cultural and social perception of data privacy, its relevance in our daily lives, its importance in society’s dialogue. Next, we look at current policy and legislature in place today, focusing primarily on Europe’s established GDPR and the incoming California Consumer Privacy Act, to see what measures are already in place and what measures need to be adopted to mold more of a culture of transparency. Next, we analyze current data privacy regulations and power of regulators like the FTC and SEC to see what tools they have at their disposal to ensure accountability in the tech industry when it comes to how our data is used. Lastly, we look at the potential act of treating and viewing data as an asset, and the implications of doing so in the scope of possible valuation and depreciation techniques. The goal of this paper is to outline initial steps to better understand and regulate data privacy and collection practices. Our goal is to bring this issue to the forefront of conversation in society, so that we may start the first step in the metaphorical marathon of data privacy, with the goal of establishing better data privacy controls and become a more data-conscious society.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Scandal-driven regulation of China's stock market: dynamics among the state, market, and stockizens

Description

ABSTRACT

Since it was officially established, China’s stock market has witnessed rapid cultural, social, economic, and legal transformations during the last two decades. But the development of China’s stock market brought

ABSTRACT

Since it was officially established, China’s stock market has witnessed rapid cultural, social, economic, and legal transformations during the last two decades. But the development of China’s stock market brought with it the frequent occurrence of securities crimes and other types of white-collar crimes that harmed vast numbers of public retail stockholders.

This study reviews sociolegal theories, especially law and finance theories, to shed light on the construction of regulatory mechanisms for the Chinese stock market. The critical point for stock market regulation is to curb securities irregularities and protect investors. This study applies white-collar criminological theories, especially crime-as-choice theories, to link the theoretical analyses of the causes of securities crimes to the laws, policies and practices governing the Chinese stock market. Historical, documentary and policy analyses, case analyses, and analysis of interviews, and observations of weibos and blogs are employed in this study. The data sources consist of: (1) historical information on the development of China’s stock market and its regulation, both in terms of legislation and practice; (2) interviews with 40 retail stockholders, each of whom has more than ten years of experiences in stock trading, in two Chinese cities, Shenzhen and Haikou; and (3) online statements and comments of 30 well known Chinese economists, law scholars, financial commentators, lawyers, and securities experts in Sina weibos (microblogs) and blogs.

Based on the analyses, this study suggests revising relevant laws and establishing supporting mechanisms to reduce securities irregularities and crimes in China’s stock market and strength the protection of stock investors. My study also draws attention to the growth of rights consciousness of public retail stockholders, which has potential to propel political and legal reform for the development of the Chinese stock market.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015