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The Role of Lipolysis in Regulating Plasma Glucose Concentrations in Mourning Doves

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Birds have unusually high plasma glucose concentrations compared to mammals of similar size despite their high metabolic rate. While birds use lipids as their main source of energy, it is still unclear how and why they maintain high plasma glucose

Birds have unusually high plasma glucose concentrations compared to mammals of similar size despite their high metabolic rate. While birds use lipids as their main source of energy, it is still unclear how and why they maintain high plasma glucose concentrations. To investigate a potential underlying mechanism, this study looks at the role of lipolysis in glucose homeostasis. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of decreased glycerol availability (through inhibition of lipolysis) on plasma glucose concentrations in mourning doves. The hypothesis is that decreased availability of glycerol will result in decreased production of glucose through gluconeogenesis leading to reduced plasma glucose concentrations. In the morning of each experiment, mourning doves were collected at the Arizona State University Tempe campus, and randomized into either a control group (0.9% saline) or experimental group (acipimox, 50mg/kg BM). Blood samples were collected prior to treatment, and at 1, 2, and 3 hours post-treatment. At 3 hours, doves were euthanized, and tissue samples were collected for analysis. Acipimox treatment resulted in significant increases in blood glucose concentrations at 1 and 2 hours post- treatment as well as renal triglyceride concentrations at 3 hours post-treatment. Change in plasma free glycerol between 0h and 3h followed an increasing trend for the acipimox treated animals, and a decreasing trend in the saline treated animals. These results do not support the hypothesis that inhibition of lipolysis should decrease blood glycerol and blood glucose levels. Rather, the effects of acipimox in glucose homeostasis appear to differ significantly between birds and mammals suggesting differing mechanisms for glucose homeostasis.

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2015-05

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Effects of novel functional food on wellness indicators

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With obesity and metabolic diseases reaching epidemic levels, it is important to find ways to increase physical activity and improve diet. Previous studies have shown that improvements in mood can increase desire to perform physical activity, and that vitamin C

With obesity and metabolic diseases reaching epidemic levels, it is important to find ways to increase physical activity and improve diet. Previous studies have shown that improvements in mood can increase desire to perform physical activity, and that vitamin C intake is linked to improvements in mood. Based on this, two hypotheses were formed and tested to investigate the effect on physical activity levels and mood states from vitamin C supplementation at a dose of one gram per day in the form of a novel functional food. Thirty-one college students or faculty at Arizona State University were screened from a pool of applicants and placed into either a vitamin C or placebo group; all participants received the novel functional food to eat daily for four weeks. Serum levels of vitamin C, weight, height, BMI, body fat percentage, mood, and physical activity were measured before and after the functional food intervention. Vitamin C changed significantly through the course of the study in the experimental group. Baseline data for participants showed a positive correlation between vitamin C status and vigor, and a negative correlation between vitamin C status and weight and BMI. Physical activity was not related to vitamin C status, according to baseline data, and it did not significantly change over the course of the study. The results indicate that variance in BMI can be attributed to vitamin C status, but the study should be refined and tested again.

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2014-05

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Selenium supplementation and cardiovascular outcome markers in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, controlled trial

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Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients elicit an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in addition to a selenium deficiency, possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Objective To evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on CVD outcomes and antioxidant status in HD patients. Design A

Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients elicit an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in addition to a selenium deficiency, possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Objective To evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on CVD outcomes and antioxidant status in HD patients. Design A randomized controlled intervention trial conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants/setting The study included 27 maintenance HD patients (61.1+17.5y, 14M, 13F) receiving HD in the greater Phoenix, AZ area. Intervention Patients received one of three treatments daily: 2 Brazil nuts, (5g, 181µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine [predicted]), 1 tablet of selenium (200µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine), or control (3 gummy bears). Main outcome measures Antioxidant status outcome measures included total antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, and RBC and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). CVD outcomes measures included brain natriuretic peptide; plasma cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides; blood pressure, and thoracic cavity fluid accumulation. Statistical analyses performed Repeated measures ANOVA analyzed changes over time and between groups at months 0 and 2 and months 0 and 3. Results Independent analysis showed the Brazil nuts provided 11µg of selenium/day and the pill provided 266µg of selenium/day. Consequently, the Brazil nut group was combined with the placebo group. 21 patients completed 2 months of the study and 17 patients completed the study in its entirety. Data was analyzed for months 0, 1 and 2. No significant differences were noted for antioxidant status outcome measures with the exception of plasma GSH-Px. Patients receiving the selenium pill had a significant increase in plasma GSH-Px compared to the placebo group (6.0+11 and -4.0+7.6, respectively, p=0.023 for change between month 0 and month 2). No significant differences were seen in total antioxidant capacity or for CVD outcome measures over time or between groups. Conclusions These data indicate that selenium supplementation increased plasma GSH-Px concentration in HD patients; however, oxidative stress was not altered by selenium supplementation. The low vitamin C status of HD patients warrants further research, specifically in conjunction with selenium supplementation.

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2013

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The effect of vitamin C supplementation on sICAM-1 in asthmatic study participants

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The common cold is a significant cause of morbidity world-wide, with human rhinovirus infections accounting for a majority colds suffered each year. While the symptoms of the common cold are generally mild and self-limiting, vulnerable populations such as individuals

The common cold is a significant cause of morbidity world-wide, with human rhinovirus infections accounting for a majority colds suffered each year. While the symptoms of the common cold are generally mild and self-limiting, vulnerable populations such as individuals with asthma can experience severe secondary complications including acute asthma exacerbation which can result in severe morbidity. Most human rhinovirus types utilize Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a receptor to enter cells and initiate infection. Expression of this cell-surface protein is elevated in the respiratory tract of asthma patients. The theoretical basis for this research is the observation that plasma measures of the soluble form of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) decrease in response to vitamin C supplementation. As rhinovirus infection occurs in the upper respiratory tract, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate change in sICAM-1 concentration in nasal lavage of asthmatic individuals in response to vitamin C supplementation. Otherwise healthy asthmatic adults between the ages of 18-65 years who were not currently using steroidal nasal sprays, smoking, or actively training for competitive sports were recruited from a university community and surrounding area to participate in an 18-day double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplement study with a parallel arm design. 13 subjects were stratified based on age, gender, BMI and baseline plasma vitamin C level to receive either 500 mg vitamin C twice daily (VTC, n=7) or placebo (PLC, n=6). Biochemical measures included nasal lavage sICAM-1, plasma sICAM-1, plasma histamine, and plasma vitamin C. Survey measures included Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess colds, Daytime Symptom Diary Scale to assess asthma symptoms, and measures of diet quality including a vitamin C food frequency questionnaire and Rapid Eating Assessment for Participants. No between group comparison of means reached significance (Mann-Whitney U test, p>0.05). Nasal lavage sICAM-1 levels were decreased in VTC group by 37% at study day 4, although this finding did not reach significance. Findings in this study can be used to develop future investigations into the response of nasal lavage sICAM-1 to vitamin C supplementation.

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2014

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Vitamin C and the common cold in the asthmatic population

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ABSTRACT

Asthma is a high-stress, chronic medical condition; 1 in 12 adults in the United States combat the bronchoconstriction from asthma. However, there are very few strong studies indicating any alternative therapy for asthmatics, particularly following a cold incidence. Vitamin

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a high-stress, chronic medical condition; 1 in 12 adults in the United States combat the bronchoconstriction from asthma. However, there are very few strong studies indicating any alternative therapy for asthmatics, particularly following a cold incidence. Vitamin C has been proven to be effective for other high-stress populations, but the asthmatic population has not yet been trialed. This study examined the effectiveness of vitamin C supplementation during the cold season on cold incidence and asthmatic symptoms. Asthmatics, otherwise-healthy, who were non-smokers and non-athletes between the ages of 18 and 55 with low plasma vitamin C concentrations were separated by anthropometrics and vitamin C status into two groups: either vitamin C (500 mg vitamin C capsule consumed twice per day) or control (placebo capsule consumed twice per day). Subjects were instructed to complete the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 and a short asthma symptoms questionnaire daily along with a shortened vitamin C Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity questionnaire weekly for eight weeks. Blood samples were drawn at Week 0 (baseline), Week 4, and Week 8. Compliance was monitored through a calendar check sheet. The vitamin C levels of both groups increased from Week 0 to Week 4, but decreased in the vitamin C group at Week 8. The vitamin C group had a 19% decrease in plasma histamine while the control group had a 53% increase in plasma histamine at the end of the trial, but this was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Total symptoms recorded from WURSS-21 were 129.3±120.7 for the vitamin C and 271.0±293.9, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.724). Total asthma symptoms also slightly varied between the groups, but again was not statistically significant (p=0.154). These results were hindered by the low number of subjects recruited. Continued research in this study approach is necessary to definitively reject or accept the potential role of vitamin C in asthma and cold care.

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2015