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Effects of Social Technology Multitasking and Task-switching on Student Learning: A Literature Review

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With social technology on the rise, it is no surprise that young students are at the forefront of its use and impact, particularly in the realm of education. Due to greater accessibility to technology, media multitasking and task-switching are becoming

With social technology on the rise, it is no surprise that young students are at the forefront of its use and impact, particularly in the realm of education. Due to greater accessibility to technology, media multitasking and task-switching are becoming increasingly prominent in learning environments. While technology can have numerous benefits, current literature, though somewhat limited in this scope, overwhelmingly shows it can also be detrimental for academic performance and learning when used improperly. While much of the existing literature regarding the impact of technology on multitasking and task-switching in learning environments is limited to self-report data, it presents important findings and potential applications for modernizing educational institutions in the wake of technological dependence. This literature review summarizes and analyzes the studies in this area to date in an effort to provide a better understanding of the impact of social technology on student learning. Future areas of research and potential strategies to adapt to rising technological dependency are also discussed, such as using a brief "technology break" between periods of study. As of yet, the majority of findings in this research area suggest the following: multitasking while studying lengthens the time required for completion; multitasking during lectures can affect memory encoding and comprehension; excessive multitasking and academic performance are negatively correlated; metacognitive strategies for studying have potential for reducing the harmful effects of multitasking; and the most likely reason students engage in media-multitasking at the cost of learning is the immediate emotional gratification. Further research is still needed to fill in gaps in literature, as well as develop other potential perspectives relevant to multitasking in academic environments.

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Agent

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Date Created
2016-12

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公募基金管理结构业绩影响研究——以“一拖多”为例

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随着基金业近年来迅速发展,一位基金经理同时管理多只基金的“一拖多”模式成为了越发普遍的现象并引起广泛关注。但在学术界,这一重要行业现象尚未被充分讨论。为深入探讨基金经理“一拖多”模式的成因及业绩影响。本文搜集并整理了中国2008年到2018年的基金业数据,对该问题进行了系统探讨。首先,就基金被“一拖多”的原因看,研究发现:(1)基金公司有过度使用优秀基金经理的现象,基金经理从业时间越长、学历越高,则管理多只基金的概率越高。(2)现金流压力较小的基金更易被“一拖多”,债券型、基金的最小赎回份额较高以及个人投资者比例较低的基金现金流压力较小,被一拖多的概率更高。(3)基金公司的注册资本越高,成立时间越长,管理规模越大,其管理的基金被“一拖多”的概率就越高。
其次,本文探讨了基金经理“一拖多”的业绩影响,研究发现:(1)基金经理“一拖多”总体上降低了基金回报。(2)异质性分析显示,当基金所在企业成立年份较长、管理资产较高时,基金经理“一拖多”更易导致基金业绩回报显著下降。此外,当基金经理从业时间较短、管理的基金组合的风格集中度较低时,这一效应更加明显。(3)基金“一拖多”模式不仅通过分散经理精力降低基金回报,久经锻炼的基金经理也会利用自身经验和知识弥补甚至追回精力分散效应的损失。
最后,本文还试图研究基金经理的最优基金管理数量。研究发现:基金业绩首先会随着基金经理同时管理基金的个数增加而下降,但随着管理基金个数的进一步增加,基金业绩会有所回升。总体上,基金经理管理的基金数量在10支左右时达到收益率最劣势,当管理基金的数量在17支以上时,经验复制效应带来的收益将超过精力分散效应带来的损耗,达到效应平衡点。
本文补充了当前学术界在基金经理“一拖多”现象上的研究,并根据研究结果提出了对应的业界实务建议。

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Agent

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Date Created
2021