Matching Items (4)

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Multitasking, an EEG Experiment

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In the study of the human brain’s ability to multitask, there are two perspectives: concurrent multitasking (performing multiple tasks simultaneously) and sequential multitasking (switching between tasks). The goal of this study is to investigate the human brain’s ability to “multitask”

In the study of the human brain’s ability to multitask, there are two perspectives: concurrent multitasking (performing multiple tasks simultaneously) and sequential multitasking (switching between tasks). The goal of this study is to investigate the human brain’s ability to “multitask” with multiple demanding stimuli of approximately equal concentration, from an electrophysiological perspective different than that of stimuli which don’t require full attention or exhibit impulsive multitasking responses. This study investigates the P3 component which has been experimentally proven to be associated with mental workload through information processing and cognitive function in visual and auditory tasks, where in the multitasking domain the greater attention elicited, the larger P3 waves are produced. This experiment compares the amplitude of the P3 component of individual stimulus presentation to that of multitasking trials, taking note of the brain workload. This study questions if the average wave amplitude in a multitasking ERP experiment will be the same as the grand average when performing the two tasks individually with respect to the P3 component. The hypothesis is that the P3 amplitude will be smaller in the multitasking trial than in the individual stimulus presentation, indicating that the brain is not actually concentrating on both tasks at once (sequential multitasking instead of concurrent) and that the brain is not focusing on each stimulus to the same degree when it was presented individually. Twenty undergraduate students at Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University (10 males and 10 females, with a mean age of 18.75 years, SD= 1.517) right handed, with normal or corrected visual acuity, English as first language, and no evidence of neurological compromise participated in the study. The experiment results revealed that one- hundred percent of participants undergo sequential multitasking in the presence of two demanding stimuli in the electrophysiological data, behavioral data, and subjective data. In this particular study, these findings indicate that the presence of additional demanding stimuli causes the workload of the brain to decrease as attention deviates in a bottleneck process to the multiple requisitions for focus, indicated by a reduced P3 voltage amplitude with the multitasking stimuli when compared to the independent. This study illustrates the feasible replication of P3 cognitive workload results for demanding stimuli, not only impulsive-response experiments, to suggest the brain’s tendency to undergo sequential multitasking when faced with multiple demanding stimuli. In brief, this study demonstrates that when higher cognitive processing is required to interpret and respond to the stimuli, the human brain results to sequential multitasking (task- switching, not concurrent multitasking) in the face of more challenging problems with each stimulus requiring a higher level of focus, workload, and attention.

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Agent

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Date Created
2019-05

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Effects of Social Technology Multitasking and Task-switching on Student Learning: A Literature Review

Description

With social technology on the rise, it is no surprise that young students are at the forefront of its use and impact, particularly in the realm of education. Due to greater accessibility to technology, media multitasking and task-switching are becoming

With social technology on the rise, it is no surprise that young students are at the forefront of its use and impact, particularly in the realm of education. Due to greater accessibility to technology, media multitasking and task-switching are becoming increasingly prominent in learning environments. While technology can have numerous benefits, current literature, though somewhat limited in this scope, overwhelmingly shows it can also be detrimental for academic performance and learning when used improperly. While much of the existing literature regarding the impact of technology on multitasking and task-switching in learning environments is limited to self-report data, it presents important findings and potential applications for modernizing educational institutions in the wake of technological dependence. This literature review summarizes and analyzes the studies in this area to date in an effort to provide a better understanding of the impact of social technology on student learning. Future areas of research and potential strategies to adapt to rising technological dependency are also discussed, such as using a brief "technology break" between periods of study. As of yet, the majority of findings in this research area suggest the following: multitasking while studying lengthens the time required for completion; multitasking during lectures can affect memory encoding and comprehension; excessive multitasking and academic performance are negatively correlated; metacognitive strategies for studying have potential for reducing the harmful effects of multitasking; and the most likely reason students engage in media-multitasking at the cost of learning is the immediate emotional gratification. Further research is still needed to fill in gaps in literature, as well as develop other potential perspectives relevant to multitasking in academic environments.

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Agent

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Date Created
2016-12

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Validating the STOM Model Using MATB II and Eye-tracking

Description

The choices of an operator under heavy cognitive load are potentially critical to overall safety and performance. Such conditions are common when technological failures arise, and the operator is forced into multi-task situations. Task switching choice was examined in an

The choices of an operator under heavy cognitive load are potentially critical to overall safety and performance. Such conditions are common when technological failures arise, and the operator is forced into multi-task situations. Task switching choice was examined in an effort to both validate previous work concerning a model of task overload management and address unresolved matters related to visual sampling. Using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery and eye tracking, the experiment studied any influence of task priority and difficulty. Continuous visual attention measurements captured attentional switches that do not manifest into behaviors but may provide insight into task switching choice. Difficulty was found to have an influence on task switching behavior; however, priority was not. Instead, priority may affect time spent on a task rather than strictly choice. Eye measures revealed some moderate connections between time spent dwelling on a task and subjective interest. The implication of this, as well as eye tracking used to validate a model of task overload management as a whole, is discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020

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公募基金管理结构业绩影响研究——以“一拖多”为例

Description

随着基金业近年来迅速发展,一位基金经理同时管理多只基金的“一拖多”模式成为了越发普遍的现象并引起广泛关注。但在学术界,这一重要行业现象尚未被充分讨论。为深入探讨基金经理“一拖多”模式的成因及业绩影响。本文搜集并整理了中国2008年到2018年的基金业数据,对该问题进行了系统探讨。首先,就基金被“一拖多”的原因看,研究发现:(1)基金公司有过度使用优秀基金经理的现象,基金经理从业时间越长、学历越高,则管理多只基金的概率越高。(2)现金流压力较小的基金更易被“一拖多”,债券型、基金的最小赎回份额较高以及个人投资者比例较低的基金现金流压力较小,被一拖多的概率更高。(3)基金公司的注册资本越高,成立时间越长,管理规模越大,其管理的基金被“一拖多”的概率就越高。
其次,本文探讨了基金经理“一拖多”的业绩影响,研究发现:(1)基金经理“一拖多”总体上降低了基金回报。(2)异质性分析显示,当基金所在企业成立年份较长、管理资产较高时,基金经理“一拖多”更易导致基金业绩回报显著下降。此外,当基金经理从业时间较短、管理的基金组合的风格集中度较低时,这一效应更加明显。(3)基金“一拖多”模式不仅通过分散经理精力降低基金回报,久经锻炼的基金经理也会利用自身经验和知识弥补甚至追回精力分散效应的损失。
最后,本文还试图研究基金经理的最优基金管理数量。研究发现:基金业绩首先会随着基金经理同时管理基金的个数增加而下降,但随着管理基金个数的进一步增加,基金业绩会有所回升。总体上,基金经理管理的基金数量在10支左右时达到收益率最劣势,当管理基金的数量在17支以上时,经验复制效应带来的收益将超过精力分散效应带来的损耗,达到效应平衡点。
本文补充了当前学术界在基金经理“一拖多”现象上的研究,并根据研究结果提出了对应的业界实务建议。

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Agent

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Date Created
2021