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Network Based Models of Opinion Formation: Consensus and Beyond

Description

Understanding the evolution of opinions is a delicate task as the dynamics of how one changes their opinion based on their interactions with others are unclear.

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Agent

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Date Created
2021

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Observability methods in sensor scheduling

Description

Modern measurement schemes for linear dynamical systems are typically designed so that different sensors can be scheduled to be used at each time step. To determine which sensors to use, various metrics have been suggested. One possible such metric is

Modern measurement schemes for linear dynamical systems are typically designed so that different sensors can be scheduled to be used at each time step. To determine which sensors to use, various metrics have been suggested. One possible such metric is the observability of the system. Observability is a binary condition determining whether a finite number of measurements suffice to recover the initial state. However to employ observability for sensor scheduling, the binary definition needs to be expanded so that one can measure how observable a system is with a particular measurement scheme, i.e. one needs a metric of observability. Most methods utilizing an observability metric are about sensor selection and not for sensor scheduling. In this dissertation we present a new approach to utilize the observability for sensor scheduling by employing the condition number of the observability matrix as the metric and using column subset selection to create an algorithm to choose which sensors to use at each time step. To this end we use a rank revealing QR factorization algorithm to select sensors. Several numerical experiments are used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Critical coupling and synchronized clusters in arbitrary networks of Kuramoto oscillators

Description

The Kuramoto model is an archetypal model for studying synchronization in groups

of nonidentical oscillators where oscillators are imbued with their own frequency and

coupled with other oscillators though a network of interactions. As the coupling

strength increases, there is a bifurcation to

The Kuramoto model is an archetypal model for studying synchronization in groups

of nonidentical oscillators where oscillators are imbued with their own frequency and

coupled with other oscillators though a network of interactions. As the coupling

strength increases, there is a bifurcation to complete synchronization where all oscillators

move with the same frequency and show a collective rhythm. Kuramoto-like

dynamics are considered a relevant model for instabilities of the AC-power grid which

operates in synchrony under standard conditions but exhibits, in a state of failure,

segmentation of the grid into desynchronized clusters.

In this dissertation the minimum coupling strength required to ensure total frequency

synchronization in a Kuramoto system, called the critical coupling, is investigated.

For coupling strength below the critical coupling, clusters of oscillators form

where oscillators within a cluster are on average oscillating with the same long-term

frequency. A unified order parameter based approach is developed to create approximations

of the critical coupling. Some of the new approximations provide strict lower

bounds for the critical coupling. In addition, these approximations allow for predictions

of the partially synchronized clusters that emerge in the bifurcation from the

synchronized state.

Merging the order parameter approach with graph theoretical concepts leads to a

characterization of this bifurcation as a weighted graph partitioning problem on an

arbitrary networks which then leads to an optimization problem that can efficiently

estimate the partially synchronized clusters. Numerical experiments on random Kuramoto

systems show the high accuracy of these methods. An interpretation of the

methods in the context of power systems is provided.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018