Matching Items (11)

Design, Modeling, and Optimization of a Hopping Robot Platform

Description

Laminate devices have the potential to lower the cost and complexity of robots. Taking advantage of laminate materials' flexibility, a high-performance jumping platform has been developed with the goal of

Laminate devices have the potential to lower the cost and complexity of robots. Taking advantage of laminate materials' flexibility, a high-performance jumping platform has been developed with the goal of optimizing jump ground clearance. Four simulations are compared in order to understand which dynamic model elements (leg flexibility, motor dynamics, contact, joint damping, etc.) must be included to accurately model jumping performance. The resulting simulations have been validated with experimental data gathered from a small set of physical leg prototypes spanning design considerations such as gear ratio and leg length, and one in particular was selected for the fidelity of performance trends against experimental results. This simulation has subsequently been used to predict the performance of new leg designs outside the initial design set. The design predicted to achieve the highest jump ground clearance was then built and tested as a demonstration of the usefulness of this simulation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

Dynamics of Tilted Stably Stratified Square Cavities

Description

The dynamics of a stably and thermally stratified, two dimensional fluid-filled cavity are the subject of numerical study. When gravity is orthogonal to the endwalls, a closed form for a

The dynamics of a stably and thermally stratified, two dimensional fluid-filled cavity are the subject of numerical study. When gravity is orthogonal to the endwalls, a closed form for a steady state solution with trivial flow may be obtained. However, as soon as the cavity is tilted the flow becomes nontrivial. Previous studies have investigated when this tilt angle is 180 degrees (Rayleigh-Bénard convection), 90 degrees, and 0 degrees, or have done a sweep while solving the steady-state equations. When buoyancy is sufficiently weak the flow is stable and steady up to 90 degrees of tilt. Above a certain level of buoyancy, as measured by the temperature difference between the top and bottom walls, the flow becomes unsteady above a tilt angle less than 90 degrees. Specifically, In this study we examine the relationship between the critical tilt angle and the buoyancy level at the onset of unsteadiness, as well as the dynamical mechanisms by which it occurs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Stoichiometric producer-grazer models, incorporating the effects of excess food-nutrient content on grazer dynamics

Description

There has been important progress in understanding ecological dynamics through the development of the theory of ecological stoichiometry. This fast growing theory provides new constraints and mechanisms that can be

There has been important progress in understanding ecological dynamics through the development of the theory of ecological stoichiometry. This fast growing theory provides new constraints and mechanisms that can be formulated into mathematical models. Stoichiometric models incorporate the effects of both food quantity and food quality into a single framework that produce rich dynamics. While the effects of nutrient deficiency on consumer growth are well understood, recent discoveries in ecological stoichiometry suggest that consumer dynamics are not only affected by insufficient food nutrient content (low phosphorus (P): carbon (C) ratio) but also by excess food nutrient content (high P:C). This phenomenon, known as the stoichiometric knife edge, in which animal growth is reduced not only by food with low P content but also by food with high P content, needs to be incorporated into mathematical models. Here we present Lotka-Volterra type models to investigate the growth response of Daphnia to algae of varying P:C ratios. Using a nonsmooth system of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs), we formulate the first model to incorporate the phenomenon of the stoichiometric knife edge. We then extend this stoichiometric model by mechanistically deriving and tracking free P in the environment. This resulting full knife edge model is a nonsmooth system of three ODEs. Bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations of the full model, that explicitly tracks phosphorus, leads to quantitatively different predictions than previous models that neglect to track free nutrients. The full model shows that the grazer population is sensitive to excess nutrient concentrations as a dynamical free nutrient pool induces extreme grazer population density changes. These modeling efforts provide insight on the effects of excess nutrient content on grazer dynamics and deepen our understanding of the effects of stoichiometry on the mechanisms governing population dynamics and the interactions between trophic levels.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Rotating split-cylinder flows

Description

The three-dimensional flow contained in a rapidly rotating circular

split cylinder is studied numerically solving the Navier--Stokes

equations. The cylinder is completely filled with fluid

and is split at the midplane. Three

The three-dimensional flow contained in a rapidly rotating circular

split cylinder is studied numerically solving the Navier--Stokes

equations. The cylinder is completely filled with fluid

and is split at the midplane. Three different types of boundary

conditions were imposed, leading to a variety of instabilities and

complex flow dynamics.

The first configuration has a strong background rotation and a small

differential rotation between the two halves. The axisymmetric flow

was first studied identifying boundary layer instabilities which

produce inertial waves under some conditions. Limit cycle states and

quasiperiodic states were found, including some period doubling

bifurcations. Then, a three-dimensional study was conducted

identifying low and high azimuthal wavenumber rotating waves due to

G’ortler and Tollmien–-Schlichting type instabilities. Over most of

the parameter space considered, quasiperiodic states were found where

both types of instabilities were present.

In the second configuration, both cylinder halves are in exact

counter-rotation, producing an O(2) symmetry in the system. The basic state flow dynamic

is dominated by the shear layer created

in the midplane. By changing the speed rotation and the aspect ratio

of the cylinder, the flow loses symmetries in a variety of ways

creating static waves, rotating waves, direction reversing waves and

slow-fast pulsing waves. The bifurcations, including infinite-period

bifurcations, were characterized and the flow dynamics was elucidated.

Additionally, preliminary experimental results for this case are

presented.

In the third set up, with oscillatory boundary conditions, inertial

wave beams were forced imposing a range of frequencies. These beams

emanate from the corner of the cylinder and from the split at the

midplane, leading to destructive/constructive interactions which

produce peaks in vorticity for some specific frequencies. These

frequencies are shown to be associated with the resonant Kelvin

modes. Furthermore, a study of the influence of imposing a phase

difference between the oscillations of the two halves of the cylinder

led to the interesting result that different Kelvin

modes can be excited depending on the phase difference.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Critical coupling and synchronized clusters in arbitrary networks of Kuramoto oscillators

Description

The Kuramoto model is an archetypal model for studying synchronization in groups

of nonidentical oscillators where oscillators are imbued with their own frequency and

coupled with other oscillators though a network of

The Kuramoto model is an archetypal model for studying synchronization in groups

of nonidentical oscillators where oscillators are imbued with their own frequency and

coupled with other oscillators though a network of interactions. As the coupling

strength increases, there is a bifurcation to complete synchronization where all oscillators

move with the same frequency and show a collective rhythm. Kuramoto-like

dynamics are considered a relevant model for instabilities of the AC-power grid which

operates in synchrony under standard conditions but exhibits, in a state of failure,

segmentation of the grid into desynchronized clusters.

In this dissertation the minimum coupling strength required to ensure total frequency

synchronization in a Kuramoto system, called the critical coupling, is investigated.

For coupling strength below the critical coupling, clusters of oscillators form

where oscillators within a cluster are on average oscillating with the same long-term

frequency. A unified order parameter based approach is developed to create approximations

of the critical coupling. Some of the new approximations provide strict lower

bounds for the critical coupling. In addition, these approximations allow for predictions

of the partially synchronized clusters that emerge in the bifurcation from the

synchronized state.

Merging the order parameter approach with graph theoretical concepts leads to a

characterization of this bifurcation as a weighted graph partitioning problem on an

arbitrary networks which then leads to an optimization problem that can efficiently

estimate the partially synchronized clusters. Numerical experiments on random Kuramoto

systems show the high accuracy of these methods. An interpretation of the

methods in the context of power systems is provided.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Mathematical Modeling of Systematic Treatment Implementation and Dynamics of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Case Studies of Visceral Leishmaniasis & Soil-Transmitted Helminths

Description

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) comprise of diverse communicable diseases that affect mostly the developing economies of the world, the “neglected” populations. The NTDs Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis (STH)

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) comprise of diverse communicable diseases that affect mostly the developing economies of the world, the “neglected” populations. The NTDs Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis (STH) are among the top contributors of global mortality and/or morbidity. They affect resource-limited regions (poor health-care literacy, infrastructure, etc.) and patients’ treatment behavior is irregular due to the social constraints. Through two case studies, VL in India and STH in Ghana, this work aims to: (i) identify the additional and potential hidden high-risk population and its behaviors critical for improving interventions and surveillance; (ii) develop models with those behaviors to study the role of improved control programs on diseases’ dynamics; (iii) optimize resources for treatment-related interventions.

Treatment non-adherence is a less focused (so far) but crucial factor for the hindrance in WHO’s past VL elimination goals. Moreover, treatment non-adherers, hidden from surveillance, lead to high case-underreporting. Dynamical models are developed capturing the role of treatment-related human behaviors (patients’ infectivity, treatment access and non-adherence) on VL dynamics. The results suggest that the average duration of treatment adherence must be increased from currently 10 days to 17 days for a 28-day Miltefosine treatment to eliminate VL.

For STH, children are considered as a high-risk group due to their hygiene behaviors leading to higher exposure to contamination. Hence, Ghana, a resource-limited country, currently implements a school-based Mass Drug Administration (sMDA) program only among children. School staff (adults), equally exposed to this high environmental contamination of STH, are largely ignored under the current MDA program. Cost-effective MDA policies were modeled and compared using alternative definitions of “high-risk population”. This work optimized and evaluated how MDA along with the treatment for high-risk adults makes a significant improvement in STH control under the same budget. The criticality of risk-structured modeling depends on the infectivity coefficient being substantially different for the two adult risk groups.

This dissertation pioneers in highlighting the cruciality of treatment-related risk groups for NTD-control. It provides novel approaches to quantify relevant metrics and impact of population factors. Compliance with the principles and strategies from this study would require a change in political thinking in the neglected regions in order to achieve persistent NTD-control.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Leader-follower dynamics anisotropic coupling and influence in social coordination

Description

The current work investigated the emergence of leader-follower roles during social motor coordination. Previous research has presumed a leader during coordination assumes a spatiotemporally advanced position (e.g., relative phase lead).

The current work investigated the emergence of leader-follower roles during social motor coordination. Previous research has presumed a leader during coordination assumes a spatiotemporally advanced position (e.g., relative phase lead). While intuitive, this definition discounts what role-taking implies. Leading and following is defined as one person (or limb) having a larger influence on the motor state changes of another; the coupling is asymmetric. Three experiments demonstrated asymmetric coupling effects emerge when task or biomechanical asymmetries are imputed between actors. Participants coordinated in-phase (Ф =0o) swinging of handheld pendulums, which differed in their uncoupled eigenfrequencies (frequency detuning). Coupling effects were recovered through phase-amplitude modeling. Experiment 1 examined leader-follower coupling during a bidirectional task. Experiment 2 employed an additional coupling asymmetry by assigning an explicit leader and follower. Both experiment 1 and 2 demonstrated asymmetric coupling effects with increased detuning. In experiment 2, though, the explicit follower exhibited a phase lead in nearly all conditions. These results confirm that coupling direction was not determined strictly by relative phasing. A third experiment examined the question raised by the previous two, which is how could someone follow from ahead (i.e., phase lead in experiment 2). This was tested using a combination of frequency detuning and amplitude asymmetry requirements (e.g., 1:1 or 1:2 & 2:1). Results demonstrated larger amplitude movements drove the coupling towards the person with the smaller amplitude; small amplitude movements exhibited a phase lead, despite being a follower in coupling terms. These results suggest leader-follower coupling is a general property of social motor coordination. Predicting when such coupling effects occur is emphasized by the stability reducing effects of coordinating asymmetric components. Generally, the implication is role-taking is an emergent strategy of dividing up coordination stabilizing efforts unequally between actors (or limbs).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

Parametric Forcing of Confined and Stratified Flows

Description

A continuously and stably stratified fluid contained in a square cavity subjected to harmonic body forcing is studied numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation. Complex dynamics

A continuously and stably stratified fluid contained in a square cavity subjected to harmonic body forcing is studied numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation. Complex dynamics are observed near the onset of instability of the basic state, which is a flow configuration that is always an exact analytical solution of the governing equations. The instability of the basic state to perturbations is first studied with linear stability analysis (Floquet analysis), revealing a multitude of intersecting synchronous and subharmonic resonance tongues in parameter space. A modal reduction method for determining the locus of basic state instability is also shown, greatly simplifying the computational overhead normally required by a Floquet study. Then, a study of the nonlinear governing equations determines the criticality of the basic state's instability, and ultimately characterizes the dynamics of the lowest order spatial mode by the three discovered codimension-two bifurcation points within the resonance tongue. The rich dynamics include a homoclinic doubling cascade that resembles the logistic map and a multitude of gluing bifurcations.

The numerical techniques and methodologies are first demonstrated on a homogeneous fluid contained within a three-dimensional lid-driven cavity. The edge state technique and linear stability analysis through Arnoldi iteration are used to resolve the complex dynamics of the canonical shear-driven benchmark problem. The techniques here lead to a dynamical description of an instability mechanism, and the work serves as a basis for the remainder of the dissertation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Convergence results for two models of interaction

Description

I investigate two models interacting agent systems: the first is motivated by the flocking and swarming behaviors in biological systems, while the second models opinion formation in social networks. In

I investigate two models interacting agent systems: the first is motivated by the flocking and swarming behaviors in biological systems, while the second models opinion formation in social networks. In each setting, I define natural notions of convergence (to a ``flock" and to a ``consensus'', respectively), and study the convergence properties of each in the limit as $t \rightarrow \infty$. Specifically, I provide sufficient conditions for the convergence of both of the models, and conduct numerical experiments to study the resulting solutions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Asymmetries in interpersonal coordination: recruiting degrees-of-freedom stabilizes coordination

Description

The current paper presents two studies that examine how asymmetries during interpersonal coordination are compensated for. It was predicted that destabilizing effects of asymmetries are stabilized through the recruitment and

The current paper presents two studies that examine how asymmetries during interpersonal coordination are compensated for. It was predicted that destabilizing effects of asymmetries are stabilized through the recruitment and suppression of motor degrees-of-freedom (df). Experiment 1 examined this effect by having participants coordinate line movements of different orientations. Greater differences in asymmetries between participants yielded greater spatial deviation, resulting in the recruitment of df. Experiment 2 examined whether coordination of movements asymmetrical in shape (circle and line) yield simultaneous recruitment and suppression of df. This experiment also tested whether the initial stability of the performed movement alters the amount of change in df. Results showed that changes in df were exhibited as circles decreasing in circularity and lines increasing in circularity. Further, more changes in df were found circular (suppression) compared to line (recruitment) movements.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013