Matching Items (7)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

133789-Thumbnail Image.png

Mass Transfer Kinetics of Novel Asymmetric Hollow-fiber Membranes

Description

This report investigates the mass-transfer kinetics of gas diffusion through an asymmetrical hollow-fiber membrane developed for the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) when it is used to microbiologically convert syngas (a mixture of H2, CO2, and CO) to organic products.

This report investigates the mass-transfer kinetics of gas diffusion through an asymmetrical hollow-fiber membrane developed for the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) when it is used to microbiologically convert syngas (a mixture of H2, CO2, and CO) to organic products. The asymmetric Matrimid® membrane had superior diffusion fluxes compared to commercially available symmetric, three-layer composite and polypropylene single-layer membranes. The Matrimid® asymmetric membrane had a H2 gas-gas diffusion flux between 960- and 1600-fold greater than that of the composite membrane and between 32,000- and 46,800-fold greater than that of the single-layer membrane. Gas-gas diffusion experiments across the Matrimid® membrane also demonstrated plasticization behavior for pure CO2 and H2 gas feeds. In particular, a 10 psia increase in inlet pressure resulted in a 12-fold increase in permeance for H2 and a 16-fold increase for CO2. Plasticization was minimal for symmetric composite and single-layer membranes. Thus, diffusion fluxes were much higher for the asymmetric membrane than for the symmetric composite and single-layer membranes, and this supports the promise of the asymmetric membrane as a high-efficiency means to deliver syngas to biofilms able to convert the syngas to organic products. Gas-liquid diffusion was much slower than gas-gas diffusion, and this supports the benefit of using the MBfR approach over fermentation reactors that rely on sparging syngas.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

134902-Thumbnail Image.png

Bi-phase Synthesis of the Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework, UiO-66

Description

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for gas separations due to their abilities to be tailored toward

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for gas separations due to their abilities to be tailored toward specific applications. Zirconium MOFs in particular are known for their high stability under standard temperature and pressure due to the strength of the Zirconium-Oxygen coordination bond. However, the acid modulator needed to ensure long range order of the product also prevents complete linker deprotonation. This leads to a powder product that cannot easily be incorporated into continuous MOF membranes. This study therefore implemented a new bi-phase synthesis technique with a deprotonating agent to achieve intergrowth in UiO-66 membranes. Crystal intergrowth will allow for effective gas separations and future permeation testing. During experimentation, successful intergrown UiO-66 membranes were synthesized and characterized. The degree of intergrowth and crystal orientations varied with changing deprotonating agent concentration, modulator concentration, and ligand:modulator ratios. Further studies will focus on achieving the same results on porous substrates.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-12

153734-Thumbnail Image.png

Recombinant electron donors and acceptors to and from reaction center particles, and light dependent menaquinone reduction in isolated membranes of Heliobacterium modesticaldum

Description

The Heliobacterial reaction center (HbRC) is generally regarded as the most primitive photosynthetic reaction center (RC) known. Even if the HbRC is structurally and functionally simple compared to higher plants, the mechanisms of energy transduction preceding, inside the core, and

The Heliobacterial reaction center (HbRC) is generally regarded as the most primitive photosynthetic reaction center (RC) known. Even if the HbRC is structurally and functionally simple compared to higher plants, the mechanisms of energy transduction preceding, inside the core, and from the RC are not totally established. Elucidating these structures and mechanisms are paramount to determining where the HbRC is in the grand scheme of RC evolution. In this work, the function and properties of the solubilized cyt c553, PetJ, were investigated, as well as the role HbRC localized menaquinone plays in light-induced electron transfer, and the interaction of the Nif-specific ferredoxin FdxB with reaction center particles devoid of bound FA/FB proteins. In chapter 2, I successfully express and purify a soluble version of PetJ that functions as a temperature dependent electron donor to P800+. Recombinant PetJ retains the spectroscopic characteristics of membrane-bound PetJ. The kinetics were characteristic of a bimolecular reaction with a second order rate of 1.53 x 104 M-1s-1 at room temperature and a calculated activation energy of 91 kJ/mol. In chapter 4, I use reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect the light-induced generation of Menaquinol-9 (MQH2) in isolated heliobacterial membranes. This process is dependent on laser power, pH, temperature, and can be modified by the presence of the artificial electron acceptor benzyl viologen (BV) and the inhibitors azoxystrobin and terbutryn. The addition of the bc complex inhibitor azoxystrobin decreases the ratio of MQ to MQH2. This indicates competition between the HbRC and the bc complex, and hints toward a truncated cyclic electron flow pathway. In chapter 5, the Nif-Specific ferredoxin FdxB was recombinantly expressed and shown to oxidize the terminal cofactor in the HbRC, FX-, in a concentration-dependent manner. This work indicates the HbRC may be able to reduce a wide variety of electron acceptors that may be involved in specific metabolic processes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

149446-Thumbnail Image.png

Synthesis of amine-modified aerogel sorbents and metal-organic framework-5 (MOF-5) membranes for carbon dioxide separation

Description

Amine-modified solid sorbents and membrane separation are promising technologies for separation and capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion flue gas. Amine absorption processes are mature, but still have room for improvement. This work focused on the synthesis of amine-modified

Amine-modified solid sorbents and membrane separation are promising technologies for separation and capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion flue gas. Amine absorption processes are mature, but still have room for improvement. This work focused on the synthesis of amine-modified aerogels and metal-organic framework-5 (MOF-5) membranes for CO2 separation. A series of solid sorbents were synthesized by functionalizing amines on the surface of silica aerogels. This was done by three coating methods: physical adsorption, magnetically assisted impact coating (MAIC) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). CO2 adsorption capacity of the sorbents was measured at room temperature in a Cahn microbalance. The sorbents synthesized by physical adsorption show the largest CO2 adsorption capacity (1.43-1.63 mmol CO2/g). An additional sorbent synthesized by ALD on hydrophilic aerogels at atmospheric pressures shows an adsorption capacity of 1.23 mmol CO2/g. Studies on one amine-modified sorbent show that the powder is of agglomerate bubbling fluidization (ABF) type. The powder is difficult to fluidize and has limited bed expansion. The ultimate goal is to configure the amine-modified sorbents in a micro-jet assisted gas fluidized bed to conduct adsorption studies. MOF-5 membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by two methods: in situ synthesis and secondary growth synthesis. Characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the membranes prepared by both methods have a thickness of 14-16 μm, and a MOF-5 crystal size of 15-25 μm with no apparent orientation. Single gas permeation results indicate that the gas transport through both membranes is determined by a combination of Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow. The contribution of viscous flow indicates that the membranes have defects.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

154238-Thumbnail Image.png

Synthesis and Permeation of Large Pore Metal-organic Framework Membranes

Description

ABSTRACT

Large-pore metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes offer potential in a number of gas and liquid separations due to their wide and selective adsorption capacities. A key characteristic of a number of MOF and zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes is

ABSTRACT

Large-pore metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes offer potential in a number of gas and liquid separations due to their wide and selective adsorption capacities. A key characteristic of a number of MOF and zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes is their highly selective adsorption capacities for CO2. These membranes offer very tangible potential to separate CO2 in a wide array of industrially relevant separation processes, such as the separation from CO2 in flue gas emissions, as well as the sweetening of methane.

By virtue of this, the purpose of this dissertation is to synthesize and characterize two linear large-pore MOF membranes, MOF-5 and ZIF-68, and to study their gas separation properties in binary mixtures of CO¬2/N2 and CO2/CH4. The three main objectives researched are as follows. The first is to study the pervaporation behavior and stability of MOF-5; this is imperative because although MOF-5 exhibits desirable adsorption and separation characteristics, it is very unstable in atmospheric conditions. In determining its stability and behavior in pervaporation, this material can be utilized in conditions wherein atmospheric levels of moisture can be avoided. The second objective is to synthesize, optimize and characterize a linear, more stable MOF membrane, ZIF-68. The final objective is to study in tandem the high-pressure gas separation behavior of MOF-5 and ZIF-68 in binary gas systems of both CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4.

Continuous ZIF-68 membranes were synthesized via the reactive seeding method and the modified reactive seeding method. These membranes, as with the MOF-5 membranes synthesized herein, both showed adherence to Knudsen diffusion, indicating limited defects. Organic solvent experiments indicated that MOF-5 and ZIF-68 were stable in a variety of organic solvents, but both showed reductions in permeation flux of the tested molecules. These reductions were attributed to fouling and found to be cumulative up until a saturation of available bonding sites for molecules was reached and stable pervaporation permeances were reached for both. Gas separation behavior for MOF-5 showed direct dependence on the CO2 partial pressure and the overall feed pressure, while ZIF-68 did not show similar behavior. Differences in separation behavior are attributable to orientation of the ZIF-68 membranes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

155914-Thumbnail Image.png

Stability, Transport and Modification of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 Membranes for Light Hydrocarbon Separations

Description

Membrane technology is a viable option to debottleneck distillation processes and minimize the energy burden associated with light hydrocarbon mixture separations. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a new class of microporous metal-organic frameworks with highly tailorable zeolitic pores and unprecedented

Membrane technology is a viable option to debottleneck distillation processes and minimize the energy burden associated with light hydrocarbon mixture separations. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a new class of microporous metal-organic frameworks with highly tailorable zeolitic pores and unprecedented separation characteristics. ZIF-8 membranes demonstrate superior separation performance for propylene/propane (C3) and hydrogen/hydrocarbon mixtures at room temperature. However, to date, little is known about the static thermal stability and ethylene/ethane (C2) separation characteristics of ZIF-8. This dissertation presents a set of fundamental studies to investigate the thermal stability, transport and modification of ZIF-8 membranes for light hydrocarbon separations.

Static TGA decomposition kinetics studies show that ZIF-8 nanocrystals maintain their crystallinity up to 200○C in inert, oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. At temperatures of 250○C and higher, the findings herein support the postulation that ZIF-8 nanocrystals undergo temperature induced decomposition via thermolytic bond cleaving reactions to form an imidazole-Zn-azirine structure. The crystallinity/bond integrity of ZIF-8 membrane thin films is maintained at temperatures below 150○C.

Ethane and ethylene transport was studied in single and binary gas mixtures. Thermodynamic parameters derived from membrane permeation and crystal adsorption experiments show that the C2 transport mechanism is controlled by adsorption rather than diffusion. Low activation energy of diffusion values for both C2 molecules and limited energetic/entropic diffusive selectivity are observed for C2 molecules despite being larger than the nominal ZIF-8 pore aperture and is due to pore flexibility.

Finally, ZIF-8 membranes were modified with 5,6 dimethylbenzimidazole through solvent assisted membrane surface ligand exchange to narrow the pore aperture for enhanced molecular sieving. Results show that relatively fast exchange kinetics occur at the mainly at the outer ZIF-8 membrane surface between 0-30 minutes of exchange. Short-time exchange enables C3 selectivity increases with minimal olefin permeance losses. As the reaction proceeds, the ligand exchange rate slows as the 5,6 DMBIm linker proceeds into the ZIF-8 inner surface, exchanges with the original linker and first disrupts the original framework’s crystallinity, then increases order as the reaction proceeds. The ligand exchange rate increases with temperature and the H2/C2 separation factor increases with increases in ligand exchange time and temperature.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017

157681-Thumbnail Image.png

Zwitterionic poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymers: membrane applications and fundamentals

Description

Zwitterionic polymers, due to their supurior capability of electrostatically induced hydration, have been considered as effective functionalities to alleviate bio-fouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Bulk modification of polysulfone-based matrices to improve hydrophilicity, on the other hand, is favored due

Zwitterionic polymers, due to their supurior capability of electrostatically induced hydration, have been considered as effective functionalities to alleviate bio-fouling of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Bulk modification of polysulfone-based matrices to improve hydrophilicity, on the other hand, is favored due to the high membrane performance, processibility, and intrinsic chlorine resistance. Here a novel synthetic method was demonstrated to prepare zwitterionic poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) copolymers, which was blended with native polysulfone (PSf) to fabricate free-standing asymmetric membranes via non-solvent induced phase separation process. Both the porosity of the support layer and surface hydrophilicity increased drastically due to the incorporation of zwitterion functionalities in the rigid polysulfone matrix. The water permeance and antifouling ability of the blend membranes were both remarkably improved to 2.5 Lm−2 h−1 bar−1 and 94% of flux recovery ratio, respectively, while salt rejection remained at a high level (98%) even under the high exposure to chlorine (8,000 ppm•h). Besides the preliminary blended membrane design, for the future membrane property enhancement, this dissertation also focused on polymer structure optimizations via elucidating the fundamentals from two perspectives: 1). Synthetic reaction kinetics and mechanisms on polycondensation of PAES. Interestingly, in combination of experiments and the computational calculations by density functional theory (DFT) methods in this work, only the aryl chlorides (ArCl) monomer follows the classical second-order reaction kinetics of aromatic nucleophilic substitution (SNAr) mechanism, while the kinetics of the aryl fluorides (ArF) reaction fit a third-order rate law. The third order reaction behavior of the ArF monomer is attributed to the activation of the carbon-fluorine bond by two potassium cations (at least one bounded to phenolate), which associate as a strong three-body complex. This complex acts as the predominant reactant during the attack by the nucleophile. 2). Optimized copolymer structures were developed for controlled high molecular weight (Mw ~ 65 kDa) and zwitterionic charge content (0~100 mol%), via off-set stoichiometry during polycondensations, following with thiol-ene click reaction and ring-opening of sultone to introduce the sulfobetaine functional groups. The structure-property-morphology relationships were elucidated for better understanding atomic-level features in the charged polymers for future high-performance desalination applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019