Matching Items (21)

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Computational Modeling and Experimentation of Pervaporation Membrane Processes for Brackish Water Recovery

Description

Fresh water is essential to the human population and is an integral component in global economics for its multiple uses, and population growth/development cause concern for the possible exhaustion of

Fresh water is essential to the human population and is an integral component in global economics for its multiple uses, and population growth/development cause concern for the possible exhaustion of the limited supply of freshwater. A combined computational and experimental approach to observe and evaluate pervaporation membrane performance for brackish water recovery was done to assess its efficiency and practicality for real world application. Results from modeling conveyed accuracy to reported parameter values from literature as well as strong dependence of performance on input parameters such as temperature. Experimentation results showed improved performance in flux by 34%-42% with radiative effect and then additional performance improvement (9%-33%) with the photothermal effect from carbon black application. Future work will include improvements to the model to include scaling propensity and energy consumption as well as continued experimentation to assess quality of pervaporation in water recovery.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Solution-Cast Membranes for Wastewater Recovery: A New Chemical-Resistant Nanocomposite Design

Description

The goal of this research project is to create a mixed matrix membrane that can withstand very acidic environments but still be used to purify water. The ultimate goal of

The goal of this research project is to create a mixed matrix membrane that can withstand very acidic environments but still be used to purify water. The ultimate goal of this membrane is to be used to purify urine both here on Earth and in space. The membrane would be able to withstand these harsh conditions due the incorporation of a resilient impermeable polymer layer that will be cast above the lower hydrophilic layer. Nanoparticles called zeolites will act as a water selective pathway through this impermeable layer and allow water to flow through the membrane. This membrane will be made using a variety of methods and polymers to determine both the cheapest and most effective way of creating this chemical resistant membrane. If this research is successful, many more water sources can be tapped since the membranes will be able to withstand hard conditions. This document is primarily focused on our progress on the development of a highly permeable polymer-zeolite film that makes up the bottom layer of the membrane. Multiple types of casting methods were investigated and it was determined that spin coating at 4000 rpm was the most effective. Based on a literature review, we selected silicalite-1 zeolites as the water-selective nanoparticle component dispersed in a casting solution of polyacrylonitrile in N-methylpyrrolidinone to comprise this hydrophilic layer. We varied the casting conditions of several simple solution-casting methods to produce thin films on the porous substrate with optimal film properties for our membrane design. We then cast this solution on other types of support materials that are more flexible and inexpensive to determine which combination resulted in the thinnest and most permeable film.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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LTA Zeolite Monolayers via the Langmuir-Blodgett Technique

Description

Zeolite thin films and membranes are currently a promising technology for pervaporation, gas separation and water purification. The main drawback with these technologies is that the synthesis is not consistent

Zeolite thin films and membranes are currently a promising technology for pervaporation, gas separation and water purification. The main drawback with these technologies is that the synthesis is not consistent leading to varied and unreproducible results. The Langmuir-Blodgett technique is a robust method for transferring monolayers of molecules or crystals to a solid substrate. By measuring the surface pressure and controlling the area, reliable results can be achieved by transferring monolayers to different solid substrates. It has been shown previously that various types of zeolites can be functionalized and dispersed on the top of water. This is done by using an alcohol to form a hydrophobic coating on the surface of zeolite. The Langmuir-Blodgett can be used to create thin, compact films of zeolites for synthesizing and growing zeolite films. For the first reported time, cubic LTA Zeolites monolayers have been assembled with the Langmuir-Blodgett technique with multiple solvents and different sizes of zeolites. These films were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Pressure-Area Isotherms generated from the Langmuir-Blodgett. It was found that linoleic acid is a required addition to the zeolite dispersions to protect the mechanical stability during agitation. Without this addition, the LTA zeolites are broken apart and lose their characteristic cubic structure. This effect is discussed and a theory is presented that the interparticle interactions of the long alkane chain of the linoleic acid help reduce the shear stress on the individual zeolite particles, thus preventing them from being broken. The effect of size of the zeolites on the monolayer formation was also discussed. There seemed to be little correlation between the monolayer quality and formation as size was changed. However, to optimize the process, different concentrations and target pressures are needed. Lastly, the effect of the solvent was explored and it was found that there is a different between monolayer formations for different solvents likely due to differing interparticle interactions. Overall, LTA zeolites were successfully fabricated and the important factors to consider are the zeolite size, the solvent, and the amount of surfactant stabilizer added.

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  • 2016-12

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Construction and Operation of a Hollow Fiber Membrane Spinning Apparatus

Description

This study details the construction and operation of a dry-jet wet spinning apparatus for extruding hollow fiber membranes (HFMs). The main components of the apparatus are a spinneret, a coagulation

This study details the construction and operation of a dry-jet wet spinning apparatus for extruding hollow fiber membranes (HFMs). The main components of the apparatus are a spinneret, a coagulation bath, and an automatic collection reel. Continuous fiber formation was achieved using two syringe pumps simultaneously delivering polymer dope and bore fluid to the spinneret. Based on apparatus runs performed with Polysulfone (PSF) dopes dissolved in N,N-Dimethylacetamide and supporting rheological analysis, the entanglement concentration, ce, was identified as a minimum processing threshold for creating HFMs. Similarly, significant increases in the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and Young's modulus for extruded HFMs were observed as polymer dope concentration was increased at levels near ce. Beyond this initial increase, subsequent tests at higher PSF concentrations yielded diminishing changes in mechanical properties, suggesting an asymptotic approach to a point where the trend would cease. Without further research, it is theorized that this point falls on a transition from the semidiute entangled to concentrated concentration regimes. SEM imaging of samples revealed the formation of grooved structures on the inner surface of samples, which was determined to be a result of the low flowrate and polymer dope concentrations used in processing the HFMs during apparatus runs. Based on continued operation of the preliminary apparatus design, many areas of improvement were noted. Namely, these consisted of controlling the collector speed, eliminating rubbing of nascent fibers against the edge of the coagulation bath by installing an elevated roller, and replacing tygon tubing for the polymer line with a luer lock adapter for direct syringe attachment to the spinneret.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

Membrane modification for sensing urine biomarker levels

Description

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) may be detected through biomarkers in urine. This research is being done to develop a membrane for use in separating urine biomarkers to monitor their level.

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) may be detected through biomarkers in urine. This research is being done to develop a membrane for use in separating urine biomarkers to monitor their level. A hydrophobic membrane was treated to improve separation of the desired biomarker for colorimetric sensing. This method was tested with model solutions containing the biomarker. Future work will extend to testing with real urine.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Bi-phase Synthesis of the Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework, UiO-66

Description

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for gas separations due to their abilities to be tailored toward specific applications. Zirconium MOFs in particular are known for their high stability under standard temperature and pressure due to the strength of the Zirconium-Oxygen coordination bond. However, the acid modulator needed to ensure long range order of the product also prevents complete linker deprotonation. This leads to a powder product that cannot easily be incorporated into continuous MOF membranes. This study therefore implemented a new bi-phase synthesis technique with a deprotonating agent to achieve intergrowth in UiO-66 membranes. Crystal intergrowth will allow for effective gas separations and future permeation testing. During experimentation, successful intergrown UiO-66 membranes were synthesized and characterized. The degree of intergrowth and crystal orientations varied with changing deprotonating agent concentration, modulator concentration, and ligand:modulator ratios. Further studies will focus on achieving the same results on porous substrates.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Mass Transfer Kinetics of Novel Asymmetric Hollow-fiber Membranes

Description

This report investigates the mass-transfer kinetics of gas diffusion through an asymmetrical hollow-fiber membrane developed for the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) when it is used to microbiologically convert syngas (a

This report investigates the mass-transfer kinetics of gas diffusion through an asymmetrical hollow-fiber membrane developed for the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) when it is used to microbiologically convert syngas (a mixture of H2, CO2, and CO) to organic products. The asymmetric Matrimid® membrane had superior diffusion fluxes compared to commercially available symmetric, three-layer composite and polypropylene single-layer membranes. The Matrimid® asymmetric membrane had a H2 gas-gas diffusion flux between 960- and 1600-fold greater than that of the composite membrane and between 32,000- and 46,800-fold greater than that of the single-layer membrane. Gas-gas diffusion experiments across the Matrimid® membrane also demonstrated plasticization behavior for pure CO2 and H2 gas feeds. In particular, a 10 psia increase in inlet pressure resulted in a 12-fold increase in permeance for H2 and a 16-fold increase for CO2. Plasticization was minimal for symmetric composite and single-layer membranes. Thus, diffusion fluxes were much higher for the asymmetric membrane than for the symmetric composite and single-layer membranes, and this supports the promise of the asymmetric membrane as a high-efficiency means to deliver syngas to biofilms able to convert the syngas to organic products. Gas-liquid diffusion was much slower than gas-gas diffusion, and this supports the benefit of using the MBfR approach over fermentation reactors that rely on sparging syngas.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Model Membrane System to Determine Water Permeability of Linde Type A Zeolite

Description

In this research, construction of a model membrane system using Polyvinylidene Chloride-Co Acrylonitrile and Linde Type A zeolites is described. The systems aims to separate out flow through zeolite pores

In this research, construction of a model membrane system using Polyvinylidene Chloride-Co Acrylonitrile and Linde Type A zeolites is described. The systems aims to separate out flow through zeolite pores and flow through interfaces between zeolites and polymers through the use of pore filled and pore open zeolites. Permeation tests and salt rejection tests were performed, and the data analyzed to yield approximation of separated flow through zeolites and interfaces. This work concludes the more work is required to bring the model system into a functioning state. New polymer selections and new techniques to produce the membrane system are described for future work.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Experiments in Science Education: How In-Classroom Demonstrations and Hands-On Activities Affect Student Interest in Science and Engineering

Description

This thesis aims to evaluate how in classroom demonstrations compare to regular education techniques, and how student learning styles affect interest in science and engineering as future fields of study.

This thesis aims to evaluate how in classroom demonstrations compare to regular education techniques, and how student learning styles affect interest in science and engineering as future fields of study. Science education varies between classrooms, but usually is geared towards lecture and preparation for standardized exams without concern for student interest or enjoyment.5 To discover the effectiveness of demonstrations in these concerns, an in classroom demonstration with a water filtration experiment was accompanied by several modules and followed by a short survey. Hypotheses tested included that students would enjoy the demonstration more than a typical class session, and that of these students, those with more visual or tactile learning styles would identify with science or engineering as a possible major in college. The survey results affirmed the first hypothesis, but disproved the second hypothesis; thus illustrating that demonstrations are enjoyable, and beneficial for sparking or maintaining student interest in science across all types of students.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Synthesis and Characterization of Thin Supported PDMS/ZIF-71 Films for Pervaporative Biofuel Recovery

Description

The recovery of biofuels permits renewable alternatives to present day fossil fuels that cause devastating effects on the planet. Pervaporation is a separation process that shows promise for the separation

The recovery of biofuels permits renewable alternatives to present day fossil fuels that cause devastating effects on the planet. Pervaporation is a separation process that shows promise for the separation of ethanol from biologically fermentation broths. The performance of thin film composite membranes of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-71) dip coated onto a porous substrate are analyzed. Pervaporation performance factors of flux, separation factor and selectivity are measured for varying ZIF-71 loadings of pure PDMS, 5 wt%, 12.5 wt% and 25 wt% at 60 oC with a 2 wt% ethanol/water feed. The increase in ZIF-71 loadings increased the performance of PDMS to produce higher flux, higher separation factor and high selectivity than pure polymeric films.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05