Matching Items (12)

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Synthesis and Characterization of Laser Plasma that Produces Pseudocarbyne Using Laser Pulses

Description

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances made using a pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique, sp¹ hybridized carbon allotropes have been created. The fabricated carbon chain is composed of sp¹ and sp³ hybridized bonds, but it also incorporates nanoparticles such as gold or possibly silver to stabilize the chain. The polyyne generated in this process is called pseudocarbyne due to its striking resemblance to the theoretical carbyne. The formation of these carbon chains is yet to be fully understood, but significant progress has been made in determining the temperature of the plasma in which the pseudocarbyne is formed. When a 532 nm pulsed laser with a pulsed energy of 250 mJ and pulse length of 10ns is used to ablate a gold target, a peak temperature of 13400 K is measured. When measured using Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) the average temperature of the neutral carbon plasma over one second was 4590±172 K. This temperature strongly suggests that the current theoretical model used to describe the temperature at which pseudocarbyne generates is accurate.

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  • 2019-05

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Adapting Laser Activated Sutures for Intestinal Surgeries

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Current wound closure technology is limited, and lacks key elements \u2014 such as the formation of an immediate seal \u2014 that could otherwise resolve some of the common and life

Current wound closure technology is limited, and lacks key elements \u2014 such as the formation of an immediate seal \u2014 that could otherwise resolve some of the common and life threatening complications associated with certain surgeries. Previous research has produced nanosealants capable of providing that immediate seal through the use of laser activation with a near infrared laser. Here, we have developed a biocompatible suture utilizes the same mechanics to provide the tensile strength needed to replace or supplement existing suture lines. Laser activated tissue integrating sutures (LATIS), are shown to have 75% of the tensile strength of commercially available PGA sutures, while still exhibiting the same laser mediated localized heating effect at power densities of as low as 1.6 W/cm2. LATIS has been shown to reach the temperature ranges needed for protein interdigitation, but suffers from low wet mechanical strength. Preparatory steps or solvents for chemical crosslinking generally dehydrate LATIS sutures, causing a shriveling effect that weakens the overall mechanical strength of the suture. To resolve this, a new method of drying, by which LATIS sutures are dried under tension on a suspended platform, has been shown to decrease control suture strength, but restore the strength of chemically treated LATIS sutures to the level of control sutures or above. These promising results suggest that follow-up work with chemical cross-linkers may produce the increases in LATIS wet strength that are needed for its implementation in deeper tissue surgeries.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Testing a novel method of viral inactivation of a lethal amphibian pathogen

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The amphibian pathogen Ambystoma Tigrinum Virus (ATV) has been an important topic of study within the amphibian community since its discovery. ATV threatens many salamander populations across the US, including

The amphibian pathogen Ambystoma Tigrinum Virus (ATV) has been an important topic of study within the amphibian community since its discovery. ATV threatens many salamander populations across the US, including those in east-central and southeast Arizona. These populations remain at risk since there are no treatments available. In this thesis, a novel method of inactivation is tested to produce a vaccine with the aim of safely eliciting an immune response within the salamander host. This novel form of inactivation has been tested on several human pathogens but has yet to be used on amphibian pathogens. It has the potential to revolutionize our traditional approach to inactivating viruses. After laser treatment, viral plaque assays suggested that inactivated ATV ceased to grow completely, pointing to the possibility of creating a vaccine. Animal challenge trials were conducted with 60 juvenile Ambystoma tigrinum, but surprisingly there was no protective effect from viral inactivation. Further study is needed to clarify why in vitro and in vivo tests of viral inactivation produced contradictory results.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

Rotating live mammalian cells free in media using spatial light modulator (SLM)-generated optical tweezers

Description

In the frenzy of next generation genetic sequencing and proteomics, single-cell level analysis has begun to find its place in the crux of personalized medicine and cancer research. Single live

In the frenzy of next generation genetic sequencing and proteomics, single-cell level analysis has begun to find its place in the crux of personalized medicine and cancer research. Single live cell 3D imaging technology is one of the most useful ways of providing spatial and morphological details inside living single cells. It provides a window to uncover the mysteries of protein structure and folding, as well as genetic expression over time, which will tremendously improve the state of the fields of biophysics and biomedical research. This thesis project specifically demonstrates a method for live single cell rotation required to image them in the single live cell CT imaging platform. The method of rotation proposed in this thesis uses dynamic optical traps generated by a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) to exert torque on a single mammalian cell. Laser patterns carrying the holographic information of the traps are delivered from the SLM through a transformation telescope into the objective lens and onto its focal plane to produce the desired optical trap "image". The phase information in the laser patterns being delivered are continuously altered by the SLM such that the structure of the wavefront produces two foci at opposite edges of the cell of interest that each moves along the circumference of the cell in opposite axial directions. Momentum generated by the motion of the foci exerts a torque on the cell, causing it to rotate. The viability of this method was demonstrated experimentally. Software was written using LabVIEW to control the display panel of the SLM.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Bulk laser material modification: towards a kerfless laser wafering process

Description

Due to the ever increasing relevance of finer machining control as well as necessary reduction in material waste by large area semiconductor device manufacturers, a novel bulk laser machining method

Due to the ever increasing relevance of finer machining control as well as necessary reduction in material waste by large area semiconductor device manufacturers, a novel bulk laser machining method was investigated. Because the cost of silicon and sapphire substrates are limiting to the reduction in cost of devices in both the light emitting diode (LED) and solar industries, and the present substrate wafering process results in >50% waste, the need for an improved ingot wafering technique exists.

The focus of this work is the design and understanding of a novel semiconductor wafering technique that utilizes the nonlinear absorption properties of band-gapped materials to achieve bulk (subsurface) morphological changes in matter using highly focused laser light. A method and tool was designed and developed to form controlled damage regions in the bulk of a crystalline sapphire wafer leaving the surfaces unaltered. The controllability of the subsurface damage geometry was investigated, and the effect of numerical aperture of the focusing optic, energy per pulse, wavelength, and number of pulses was characterized for a nanosecond pulse length variable wavelength Nd:YAG OPO laser.

A novel model was developed to describe the geometry of laser induced morphological changes in the bulk of semiconducting materials for nanosecond pulse lengths. The beam propagation aspect of the model was based on ray-optics, and the full Keldysh multiphoton photoionization theory in conjuncture with Thornber's and Drude's models for impact ionization were used to describe high fluence laser light absorption and carrier generation ultimately resulting in permanent material modification though strong electron-plasma absorption and plasma melting. Although the electron-plasma description of laser damage formation is usually reserved for extremely short laser pulses (<20 ps), this work shows that it can be adapted for longer pulses of up to tens of nanoseconds.

In addition to a model describing damage formation of sub-band gap energy laser light in semiconducting and transparent crystalline dielectrics, a novel nanosecond laser process was successfully realized to generate a thin plane of damage in the bulk of sapphire wafers. This was accomplished using high numerical aperture optics, a variable wavelength nanosecond laser source, and three-dimensional motorized precision stage control.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Highly sensitive in-plane strain mapping using a laser scanning technique

Description

In this work, a highly sensitive strain sensing technique is developed to realize in-plane strain mapping for microelectronic packages or emerging flexible or foldable devices, where mechanical or thermal strain

In this work, a highly sensitive strain sensing technique is developed to realize in-plane strain mapping for microelectronic packages or emerging flexible or foldable devices, where mechanical or thermal strain is a major concern that could affect the performance of the working devices or even lead to the failure of the devices. Therefore strain sensing techniques to create a contour of the strain distribution is desired.

The developed highly sensitive micro-strain sensing technique differs from the existing strain mapping techniques, such as digital image correlation (DIC)/micro-Moiré techniques, in terms of working mechanism, by filling a technology gap that requires high spatial resolution while simultaneously maintaining a large field-of-view. The strain sensing mechanism relies on the scanning of a tightly focused laser beam onto the grating that is on the sample surface to detect the change in the diffracted beam angle as a result of the strain. Gratings are fabricated on the target substrates to serve as strain sensors, which carries the strain information in the form of variations in the grating period. The geometric structure of the optical system inherently ensures the high sensitivity for the strain sensing, where the nanoscale change of the grating period is amplified by almost six orders into a diffraction peak shift on the order of several hundred micrometers. It significantly amplifies the small signal measurements so that the desired sensitivity and accuracy can be achieved.

The important features, such as strain sensitivity and spatial resolution, for the strain sensing technique are investigated to evaluate the technique. The strain sensitivity has been validated by measurements on homogenous materials with well known reference values of CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). 10 micro-strain has been successfully resolved from the silicon CTE extraction measurements. Furthermore, the spatial resolution has been studied on predefined grating patterns, which are assembled to mimic the uneven strain distribution across the sample surface. A resolvable feature size of 10 µm has been achieved with an incident laser spot size of 50 µm in diameter.

In addition, the strain sensing technique has been applied to a composite sample made of SU8 and silicon, as well as the microelectronic packages for thermal strain mappings.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Optical characterization and lasing study of nanowires

Description

Nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) structures with diameter on the nanometer scales with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio. Nanowires of various materials including semiconductors, dielectrics and metals have been intensively researched

Nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) structures with diameter on the nanometer scales with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio. Nanowires of various materials including semiconductors, dielectrics and metals have been intensively researched in the past two decades for applications to electrical and optical devices. Typically, nanowires are synthesized using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) approach, which allows defect-free 1D growth despite the lattice mismatch between nanowires and substrates. Lattice mismatch issue is a serious problem in high-quality thin film growth of many semiconductors and non-semiconductors. Therefore, nanowires provide promising platforms for the applications requiring high crystal quality materials.

With the 1D geometry, nanowires are natural optical waveguides for light guiding and propagation. By introducing feedback mechanisms to nanowire waveguides, such as the cleaved end facets, the nanowires can work as ultra-small size lasers. Since the first demonstration of the room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire lasers in 2001, the nanowire lasers covering from ultraviolet to mid infrared wavelength ranges have been intensively studied. This dissertation focuses on the optical characterization and laser fabrication of two nanowire materials: erbium chloride silicate nanowires and composition-graded CdSSe semiconductor alloy nanowires.

Chapter 1 – 5 of this dissertation presents a comprehensive characterization of a newly developed erbium compound material, erbium chloride silicate (ECS) in a nanowire form. Extensive experiments demonstrated the high crystal quality and excellent optical properties of ECS nanowires. Optical gain higher than 30 dB/cm at 1.53 μm wavelength is demonstrated on single ECS nanowires, which is higher than the gain of any reported erbium materials. An ultra-high Q photonic crystal micro-cavity is designed on a single ECS nanowire towards the ultra-compact lasers at communication wavelengths. Such ECS nanowire lasers show the potential applications of on-chip photonics integration.

Chapter 6 – 7 presents the design and demonstration of dynamical color-controllable lasers on a single CdSSe alloy nanowire. Through the defect-free VLS growth, engineering of the alloy composition in a single nanowire is achieved. The alloy composition of CdSxSe1-x uniformly varies along the nanowire axis from x=1 to x=0, giving the opportunity of multi-color lasing in a monolithic structure. By looping the wide-bandgap end of the alloy nanowire through nanoscale manipulation, the simultaneous two-color lasing at green and red colors are demonstrated. The 107 nm wavelength separation of the two lasing colors is much larger than the gain bandwidth of typical semiconductors. Since the two-color lasing shares the output port, the color of the total lasing output can be controlled dynamically between the two fundamental colors by changing the relative output power of two lasing colors. Such multi-color lasing and continuous color tuning in a wide spectral range would eventually enable color-by-design lasers to be used for lighting, display and many other applications.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Dual-wavelength internal-optically-pumped semiconductor laser diodes

Description

Dual-wavelength laser sources have various existing and potential applications in wavelength division multiplexing, differential techniques in spectroscopy for chemical sensing, multiple-wavelength interferometry, terahertz-wave generation, microelectromechanical systems, and microfluidic lab-on-chip systems.

Dual-wavelength laser sources have various existing and potential applications in wavelength division multiplexing, differential techniques in spectroscopy for chemical sensing, multiple-wavelength interferometry, terahertz-wave generation, microelectromechanical systems, and microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. In the drive for ever smaller and increasingly mobile electronic devices, dual-wavelength coherent light output from a single semiconductor laser diode would enable further advances and deployment of these technologies. The output of conventional laser diodes is however limited to a single wavelength band with a few subsequent lasing modes depending on the device design. This thesis investigates a novel semiconductor laser device design with a single cavity waveguide capable of dual-wavelength laser output with large spectral separation. The novel dual-wavelength semiconductor laser diode uses two shorter- and longer-wavelength active regions that have separate electron and hole quasi-Fermi energy levels and carrier distributions. The shorter-wavelength active region is based on electrical injection as in conventional laser diodes, and the longer-wavelength active region is then pumped optically by the internal optical field of the shorter-wavelength laser mode, resulting in stable dual-wavelength laser emission at two different wavelengths quite far apart. Different designs of the device are studied using a theoretical model developed in this work to describe the internal optical pumping scheme. The carrier transport and separation of the quasi-Fermi distributions are then modeled using a software package that solves Poisson's equation and the continuity equations to simulate semiconductor devices. Three different designs are grown using molecular beam epitaxy, and broad-area-contact laser diodes are processed using conventional methods. The modeling and experimental results of the first generation design indicate that the optical confinement factor of the longer-wavelength active region is a critical element in realizing dual-wavelength laser output. The modeling predicts lower laser thresholds for the second and third generation designs; however, the experimental results of the second and third generation devices confirm challenges related to the epitaxial growth of the structures in eventually demonstrating dual-wavelength laser output.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Fabrication and characterization of metallic cavity nanolasers

Description

Nanolasers represents the research frontier in both the areas of photonics and nanotechnology for its interesting properties in low dimension physics, its appealing prospects in integrated photonics, and other on-chi

Nanolasers represents the research frontier in both the areas of photonics and nanotechnology for its interesting properties in low dimension physics, its appealing prospects in integrated photonics, and other on-chip applications. In this thesis, I present my research work on fabrication and characterization of a new type of nanolasers: metallic cavity nanolasers. The last ten years witnessed a dramatic paradigm shift from pure dielectric cavity to metallic cavity in the research of nanolasers. By using low loss metals such as silver, which is highly reflective at near infrared, light can be confined in an ultra small cavity or waveguide with sub-wavelength dimensions, thus enabling sub-wavelength cavity lasers. Based on this idea, I fabricated two different kinds of metallic cavity nanolasers with rectangular and circular geometries with InGaAs as the gain material and silver as the metallic shell. The lasing wavelength is around 1.55 μm, intended for optical communication applications. Continuous wave (CW) lasing at cryogenic temperature under current injection was achieved on devices with a deep sub-wavelength physical cavity volume smaller than 0.2 λ3. Improving device fabrication process is one of the main challenges in the development of metallic cavity nanolasers due to its ultra-small size. With improved fabrication process and device design, CW lasing at room temperature was demonstrated as well on a sub-wavelength rectangular device with a physical cavity volume of 0.67 λ3. Experiments verified that a small circular nanolasers supporting TE¬01 mode can generate an azimuthal polarized laser beam, providing a compact such source under electrical injection. Sources with such polarizations could have many special applications. Study of digital modulation of circular nanolasers showed that laser noise is an important factor that will affect the data rate of the nanolaser when used as the light source in optical interconnects. For future development, improving device fabrication processes is required to improve device performance. In addition, techniques need to be developed to realize nanolaser/Si waveguide integration. In essence, resolving these two critical issues will finally pave the way for these nanolasers to be used in various practical applications.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Modelling and simulation of plasmonic waveguides and nanolasers

Description

This thesis summarizes modeling and simulation of plasmonic waveguides and nanolasers. The research includes modeling of dielectric constants of doped semiconductor as a potential plasmonic material, simulation of plasmonic waveguides

This thesis summarizes modeling and simulation of plasmonic waveguides and nanolasers. The research includes modeling of dielectric constants of doped semiconductor as a potential plasmonic material, simulation of plasmonic waveguides with different configurations and geometries, simulation and design of plasmonic nanolasers. In the doped semiconductor part, a more accurate model accounting for dielectric constant of doped InAs was proposed. In the model, Interband transitions accounted for by Adachi's model considering Burstein-Moss effect and free electron effect governed by Drude model dominate in different spectral regions. For plasmonic waveguide part, Insulator-Metal-Insulator (IMI) waveguide, silver nanowire waveguide with and without substrate, Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) waveguide and Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor-Insulator-Metal (MISIM) waveguide were investigated respectively. Modal analysis was given for each part. Lastly, a comparative study of plasmonic and optical modes in an MSM disk cavity was performed by FDTD simulation for room temperature at the telecommunication wavelength. The results show quantitatively that plasmonic modes have advantages over optical modes in the scalability down to small size and the cavity Quantum Electrodynamics(QED) effects due to the possibility of breaking the diffraction limit. Surprisingly for lasing characteristics, though plasmonic modes have large loss as expected, minimal achievable threshold can be attained for whispering gallery plasmonic modes with azimuthal number of 2 by optimizing cavity design at 1.55µm due to interplay of metal loss and radiation loss.

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Agent

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Date Created
  • 2014