Matching Items (12)

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The effects of variable training on generalization during loss of balance

Description

Reactive step and treadmill perturbation training have been shown to improve first step measurements and reduce falls. However, the effect of variable training on the efficacy of generalization is

Reactive step and treadmill perturbation training have been shown to improve first step measurements and reduce falls. However, the effect of variable training on the efficacy of generalization is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to measure whether the addition of variability in the perturbation training protocol can increase the amount of generalization seen in forward perturbations. The study included 28 young, healthy adults between the age of 20-35 years old with no known significant medical history. Fifteen participants underwent constant training in one direction with the same belt acceleration (4 m/s2) and thirteen participants underwent variable training where their foot positioned and belt acceleration (3 m/s2, 4 m/s2, 5 m/s2) were randomized throughout the collections All slips were done in the forward direction requiring a forward reactive step. To assess the effects of variable training an independent sample t-test of the differences in generalization between each group was calculated. Primary outcome variables in both studies were margin of stability (MOS), step length, and step latency. Results from the study indicated that variable training made no significant improvement (p<0.05) in generalization across the variables. The P-values for the difference in generalization of MOS, step length, and step latency were 0.635, 0.225, 0.148 respectively. Despite the lack of significant evidence to support improvement in generalization with variable training, further investigations are warranted to develop training methods capable of reducing falls in at risk populations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Development of joint control during drawing movements in childhood

Description

Research on joint control during arm movements in adults has led to the development of the Leading Joint Hypothesis (LJH), which states that the central nervous system takes advantage of

Research on joint control during arm movements in adults has led to the development of the Leading Joint Hypothesis (LJH), which states that the central nervous system takes advantage of interaction torque (IT) and muscle torque (MT) to produce movements with maximum efficiency in the multi-jointed limbs of the human body. A gap in knowledge exists in determining how this mature pattern of joint control develops in children. Prior research focused on the kinematics of joint control for children below the age of three; however, not much is known about interjoint coordination with respect to MT and IT in school-aged children. In the present study, joint control at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist during drawing of five shapes was investigated. A random sample of nine typically developing children ages 6 to 12 served as subjects. The task was to trace with the index finger a template placed on a horizontal table. The template consisted of a circle, horizontal, vertical, right-diagonal, and left-diagonal line. Analysis of muscle torque contribution (MTC) revealed the individual roles of MT and IT in the shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. During drawing of the horizontal line, which requires the most difficult joint control pattern in adults because it does not allow the use of IT for joint rotation, joint control was found to change through development. For the youngest children, the function of elbow MT modified to suppress IT, thereby producing large elbow rotation. The oldest children simplified this by using the shoulder as the principal joint of movement production and with decreased assistance from the elbow. For the other four drawing movements, differences in the pattern of joint control used by all of the subjects was unaffected by an increase in age. Overall, the results suggest that in children above 6 years of age, minor changes in joint control occur during drawing of relatively simple movements. The limited effect of age that was observed could be related to the restriction of movements to the horizontal plane. For a future study, three-dimensional movements that provide more freedom in joint control due to redundancy of degrees of freedom could be more informative about developmental changes in joint coordination.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Assessment of Upper Limb Function and the Underlying Movement Strategies with Potential Application to Rotator Cuff Tears

Description

Introduction: Individuals with rotator cuff tears (RCT) have been found to compensate in their movement patterns by using lower thoracohumeral elevation angles during certain tasks, as well as increased internal

Introduction: Individuals with rotator cuff tears (RCT) have been found to compensate in their movement patterns by using lower thoracohumeral elevation angles during certain tasks, as well as increased internal rotation of the shoulder (Vidt et al., 2016). The leading joint hypothesis (LJH) suggests there is one leading joint that creates the foundation for the entire limb motion, and there are other subordinate joints that monitor the passive interaction torque (IT) and create a net torque (NT) aiding to limb motions required for the task. This experiment hopes to establish a better understanding of joint control strategies during a wide range of arm movements. Based off of the LJH, we hypothesize that when a subject has a rotator cuff tear, their performance of planar and three- dimensional motions should be altered not only at the shoulder, which is often the leading joint, but also at other joints on the arm such as the elbow and wrist.

Methods: There were 3 groups of participants: healthy younger adults (age 21.74 ± 1.97), healthy older adult controls (age 69.53 ± 6.85), and older adults with a RCT (age 64.33 ± 4.04). All three groups completed strength testing, horizontal drawing and pointing tasks, and three-dimensional (3D) activities of daily living (ADLs). Kinematic and kinetic variables of the arm were obtained during horizontal and 3D tasks using data from 13 reflective markers placed on the arm and trunk, 8 motion capture cameras, and Cortex motion capture software (Motion Analysis Corp., Santa Rosa, CA). During these tasks, electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on 12 muscles along the arm that affect shoulder, elbow, and wrist rotation. Strength testing tasks were measured using a dynamometer. All strength testing and 3D tasks were completed for three trials and horizontal tasks were completed for two trials.

Results: Results of the younger adult participants showed that during the forward portion of seven 3D tasks, there were four phases of different joint control mechanics seen in a majority of the movements. These phases included active rotation of both the shoulder and the elbow joint, active rotation of the shoulder with passive rotation of the elbow, passive rotation of the shoulder with active rotation of the elbow, and passive rotation of both the shoulder and the elbow. Passive rotation during movements was a result of gravitational torque (GT) on the different segments of the arm and IT caused as a result the multi-joint structure of human limbs. The number of tested participants for the healthy older adults and RCT older adults groups is not yet high enough to produce significant results and because of this their results are not reported in this article.

Discussion: Through the available results, multiple phases were found where one or both of the joints of the arm moved passively which further supports the LJH and extends it to include 3D movements. This article is a part of a bigger project which hopes to get a better understanding of how older adults adjust to large passive torques acting on the arm during 3D movements and how older adults with RCTs compensate for the decreased strength, the decreased range of motion (ROM), and the pain that accompany these types of tears. Hopefully the results of this experiment lead to more research toward better understanding how to treat patients with RCTs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Characterizing the Role of Arm Configuration on Patterns of Movement Variability in 3D Space

Description

Motor behavior is prone to variable conditions and deviates further in disorders affecting the nervous system. A combination of environmental and neural factors impacts the amount of uncertainty. Although the

Motor behavior is prone to variable conditions and deviates further in disorders affecting the nervous system. A combination of environmental and neural factors impacts the amount of uncertainty. Although the influence of these factors on estimating endpoint positions have been examined, the role of limb configuration on endpoint variability has been mostly ignored. Characterizing the influence of arm configuration (i.e. intrinsic factors) would allow greater comprehension of sensorimotor integration and assist in interpreting exaggerated movement variability in patients. In this study, subjects were placed in a 3-D virtual reality environment and were asked to move from a starting position to one of three targets in the frontal plane with and without visual feedback of the moving limb. The alternating of visual feedback during trials increased uncertainty between the planning and execution phases. The starting limb configurations, adducted and abducted, were varied in separate blocks. Arm configurations were setup by rotating along the shoulder-hand axis to maintain endpoint position. The investigation hypothesized: 1) patterns of endpoint variability of movements would be dependent upon the starting arm configuration and 2) any differences observed would be more apparent in conditions that withheld visual feedback. The results indicated that there were differences in endpoint variability between arm configurations in both visual conditions, but differences in variability increased when visual feedback was withheld. Overall this suggests that in the presence of visual feedback, planning of movements in 3D space mostly uses coordinates that are arm configuration independent. On the other hand, without visual feedback, planning of movements in 3D space relies substantially on intrinsic coordinates.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Characterizing the Role of Arm Configuration on Patterns of Movement Variability in 3D Space

Description

Motor behavior is prone to variable conditions and deviates further in disorders affecting the nervous system. A combination of environmental and neural factors impacts the amount of uncertainty. Although the

Motor behavior is prone to variable conditions and deviates further in disorders affecting the nervous system. A combination of environmental and neural factors impacts the amount of uncertainty. Although the influence of these factors on estimating endpoint positions have been examined, the role of limb configuration on endpoint variability has been mostly ignored. Characterizing the influence of arm configuration (i.e. intrinsic factors) would allow greater comprehension of sensorimotor integration and assist in interpreting exaggerated movement variability in patients. In this study, subjects were placed in a 3-D virtual reality environment and were asked to move from a starting position to one of three targets in the frontal plane with and without visual feedback of the moving limb. The alternating of visual feedback during trials increased uncertainty between the planning and execution phases. The starting limb configurations, adducted and abducted, were varied in separate blocks. Arm configurations were setup by rotating along the shoulder-hand axis to maintain endpoint position. The investigation hypothesized: 1) patterns of endpoint variability of movements would be dependent upon the starting arm configuration and 2) any differences observed would be more apparent in conditions that withheld visual feedback. The results indicated that there were differences in endpoint variability between arm configurations in both visual conditions, but differences in variability increased when visual feedback was withheld. Overall this suggests that in the presence of visual feedback, planning of movements in 3D space mostly uses coordinates that are arm configuration independent. On the other hand, without visual feedback, planning of movements in 3D space relies substantially on intrinsic coordinates.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Movement kinematics and fractal properties in Fitts' law task

Description

Fractal analyses examine variability in a time series to look for temporal structure

or pattern that reveals the underlying processes of a complex system. Although fractal

property has been found in many

Fractal analyses examine variability in a time series to look for temporal structure

or pattern that reveals the underlying processes of a complex system. Although fractal

property has been found in many signals in biological systems, how it relates to

behavioral performance and what it implies about the complex system under scrutiny are

still open questions. In this series of experiments, fractal property, movement kinematics,

and behavioral performance were measured on participants performing a reciprocal

tapping task. In Experiment 1, the results indicated that the alpha value from detrended

fluctuation analysis (DFA) reflected deteriorating performance when visual feedback

delay was introduced into the reciprocal tapping task. This finding suggests that this

fractal index is sensitive to performance level in a movement task. In Experiment 2, the

sensitivity of DFA alpha to the coupling strength between sub-processes within a system

was examined by manipulation of task space visibility. The results showed that DFA

alpha was not influenced by disruption of subsystems coupling strength. In Experiment 3,

the sensitivity of DFA alpha to the level of adaptivity in a system under constraints was

examined. Manipulation of the level of adaptivity was not successful, leading to

inconclusive results to this question.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The effects of assisted cycle therapy on executive and motor functioning in older adults

Description

This study examines cognitive and motor function in typical older adults following acute exercise. Ten older adults (Mage = 65.1) completed a single session of assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise

This study examines cognitive and motor function in typical older adults following acute exercise. Ten older adults (Mage = 65.1) completed a single session of assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. These sessions were randomized and separated by approximately one week. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for 30-minutes each session. These sessions were separated by at least two days. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and set shifting and motor testing including gross and fine motor performance at the beginning and at the end of each session. Consistent with our hypothesis concerning manual dexterity, the results showed that manual dexterity improved following the ACT session more than the VC or NC sessions. Improvements in set shifting were also found for the ACT session but not for the VC or NC sessions. The results are interpreted with respect to improvements in neurological function in older adults following acute cycling exercise. These improvements are balance, manual dexterity, and set shifting which have a positive effects on activities of daily living; such as, decrease risk of falls, improve movements like eating and handwriting, and increase ability to multitask.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Asymmetries in interpersonal coordination: recruiting degrees-of-freedom stabilizes coordination

Description

The current paper presents two studies that examine how asymmetries during interpersonal coordination are compensated for. It was predicted that destabilizing effects of asymmetries are stabilized through the recruitment and

The current paper presents two studies that examine how asymmetries during interpersonal coordination are compensated for. It was predicted that destabilizing effects of asymmetries are stabilized through the recruitment and suppression of motor degrees-of-freedom (df). Experiment 1 examined this effect by having participants coordinate line movements of different orientations. Greater differences in asymmetries between participants yielded greater spatial deviation, resulting in the recruitment of df. Experiment 2 examined whether coordination of movements asymmetrical in shape (circle and line) yield simultaneous recruitment and suppression of df. This experiment also tested whether the initial stability of the performed movement alters the amount of change in df. Results showed that changes in df were exhibited as circles decreasing in circularity and lines increasing in circularity. Further, more changes in df were found circular (suppression) compared to line (recruitment) movements.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Characterizing feedforward and feedback grasp control mechanisms in early phases of manipulation

Description

Anticipatory planning of digit positions and forces is critical for successful dexterous object manipulation. Anticipatory (feedforward) planning bypasses the inherent delays in reflex responses and sensorimotor integration associated with reactive

Anticipatory planning of digit positions and forces is critical for successful dexterous object manipulation. Anticipatory (feedforward) planning bypasses the inherent delays in reflex responses and sensorimotor integration associated with reactive (feedback) control. It has been suggested that feedforward and feedback strategies can be distinguished based on the profile of grip and load force rates during the period between initial contact with the object and object lift. However, this has not been validated in tasks that do not constrain digit placement. The purposes of this thesis were (1) to validate the hypothesis that force rate profiles are indicative of the control strategy used for object manipulation and (2) to test this hypothesis by comparing manipulation tasks performed with and without digit placement constraints. The first objective comprised two studies. In the first study an additional light or heavy mass was added to the base of the object. In the second study a mass was added, altering the object's center of mass (CM) location. In each experiment digit force rates were calculated between the times of initial digit contact and object lift. Digit force rates were fit to a Gaussian bell curve and the goodness of fit was compared across predictable and unpredictable mass and CM conditions. For both experiments, a predictable object mass and CM elicited bell shaped force rate profiles, indicative of feedforward control. For the second objective, a comparison of performance between subjects who performed the grasp task with either constrained or unconstrained digit contact locations was conducted. When digit location was unconstrained and CM was predictable, force rates were well fit to a bell shaped curve. However, the goodness of fit of the force rate profiles to the bell shaped curve was weaker for the constrained than the unconstrained digit placement condition. These findings seem to indicate that brain can generate an appropriate feedforward control strategy even when digit placement is unconstrained and an infinite combination of digit placement and force solutions exists to lift the object successfully. Future work is needed that investigates the role digit positioning and tactile feedback has on anticipatory control of object manipulation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The role of motor cortical neuron subpopulations in the adaptation of locomotion through complex environments

Description

Locomotion in natural environments requires coordinated movements from multiple body parts, and precise adaptations when changes in the environment occur. The contributions of the neurons of the motor cortex

Locomotion in natural environments requires coordinated movements from multiple body parts, and precise adaptations when changes in the environment occur. The contributions of the neurons of the motor cortex underlying these behaviors are poorly understood, and especially little is known about how such contributions may differ based on the anatomical and physiological characteristics of neurons. To elucidate the contributions of motor cortical subpopulations to movements, the activity of motor cortical neurons, muscle activity, and kinematics were studied in the cat during a variety of locomotion tasks requiring accurate foot placement, including some tasks involving both expected and unexpected perturbations of the movement environment. The roles of neurons with two types of neuronal characteristics were studied: the existence of somatosensory receptive fields located at the shoulder, elbow, or wrist of the contralateral forelimb; and the existence projections through the pyramidal tract, including fast- and slow-conducting subtypes.

Distinct neuronal adaptations between simple and complex locomotion tasks were observed for neurons with different receptive field properties and fast- and slow-conducting pyramidal tract neurons. Feedforward and feedback-driven kinematic control strategies were observed for adaptations to expected and unexpected perturbations, respectively, during complex locomotion tasks. These kinematic differences were reflected in the response characteristics of motor cortical neurons receptive to somatosensory information from different parts of the forelimb, elucidating roles for the various neuronal populations in accommodating disturbances in the environment during behaviors. The results show that anatomical and physiological characteristics of motor cortical neurons are important for determining if and how neurons are involved in precise control of locomotion during natural behaviors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015