Matching Items (5)

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EXPRESSION DETECTION OF HPV-16 mRNA USING RT-qPCR IN HEAD AND NECK CANCER

Description

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of 99.7% of cervical cancers. Research of cervical cancer has made this disease mostly curable in the developing world. Head and neck cancer,

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of 99.7% of cervical cancers. Research of cervical cancer has made this disease mostly curable in the developing world. Head and neck cancer, which is increasingly caused by HPV, still is associated with a mortality rate of 50,000 in the US annually. This study proposed to evaluate the biology of HPV-16 in head and neck tumors by using RT-qPCR to measure the RNA expression and its relation to physical status of the virus. Methods: This study was to develop an assay that uses RT-qPCR to determine the quantitative expression of HPV-16 RNA coding for proteins E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7 in tumor samples. The assay development started with creation of primers. It went on to test the primers on template DNA through traditional PCR and then on DNA from HPV-16 positive cell lines, SiHa and CaSki, using RT-qPCR. This paper also describes the troubleshooting methods taken for the PCR reaction. Once the primers are verified, the RT-qPCR process can be carried out on RNA purified from tumor samples. Results: No primer sets have been confirmed to produce a product through PCR or RT-qPCR. The primer sequences match up correctly with known sequences for HPV-16 E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7. RT-qPCR showed results consistent with the hypothesis. Conclusion: The RT-qPCR protocol must be optimized to confirm the primer sequences work as desired. Then primers will be used to study physical status and RNA expression in HPV-positive and HPV-negative head and neck tumor samples. This assay can help shed light on which proteins are expressed most in tumors of the head and neck and will aid in the development of future screening and treatment options.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Human Papillomavirus specific immune responses as biomarkers for the early detection of cervical cancer

Description

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV 16, 18 or 45 species is associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV 16, 18 or 45 species is associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer. HPV genotyping and Pap smear tests are the regular methods used to detect pre-invasive cervical lesions, but there is a need for developing a rapid biomarker to profile immunity to these viruses. The viral E7 oncogene is expressed in most HPV-associated cancers and anti-E7 antibodies can be detected in the blood of patients with cervical cancer. This research was focused on viral E7 oncogene expression to be used in development of low-cost point of care tests, enabling patients from low resource settings to detect the asymptotic stage of cervical cancer and be able to seek treatment early. In order to produce the E7 protein in vitro to measure antibody levels, GST tagged E7 genes from HPV 16, 18 and 45 species were inserted into the pDEST15 vector and expressed in E. coli BL21DE3 cells that were induced with 1mM of IPTG. The E7-GST fused expressed protein was then purified using glutathione beads and resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein expression was 5.8 \u03bcg/ml for HPV 16E7 in 500 ml culture and for the 500 ml culture of HPV 18 E7 and 45 E7 were 10.5 \u03bcg/ml and 10.5 \u03bcg/ml for HPV 18E7 and 45E7 respectively. High yield values are showing high expression levels of GST-tagged E7 recombinant protein which can be used for serotyping a number of individuals. This shows that HPV E7 can be produced in large quantities that can potentially be used in point of care tests that can help identify women at risk of cervical cancer. In conclusion, the E7 protein produced in this study can potentially be used to induce humoral responses in patients\u2019 sera for understanding the immune response of cervical cancer.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Expression of 12 High and Low Risk HPV Type Proteomes for the Development of a Protein Microarray

Description

Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is seen in up to 90% of cases of cervical cancer, the third leading cancer cause of death in women. Current HPV screening focuses on

Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is seen in up to 90% of cases of cervical cancer, the third leading cancer cause of death in women. Current HPV screening focuses on only two HPV types and covers roughly 75% of HPV-associated cervical cancers. A protein based assay to test for antibody biomarkers against 98 HPV antigens from both high and low risk types could provide an inexpensive and reliable method to screen for patients at risk of developing invasive cervical cancer. Methods: 98 codon optimized, commercially produced HPV genes were cloned into the pANT7_cGST vector, amplified in a bacterial host, and purified for mammalian expression using in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) in a luminescence-based RAPID ELISA (RELISA) assay. Monoclonal antibodies were used to determine immune cross-reactivity between phylogenetically similar antigens. Lastly, several protein characteristics were examined to determine if they correlated with protein expression. Results: All genes were successfully moved into the destination vector and 86 of the 98 genes (88%) expressed protein at an adequate level. A difference was noted in expression by gene across HPV types but no correlation was found between protein size, pI, or aliphatic index and expression. Discussion: Further testing is needed to express the remaining 12 HPV genes. Once all genes have been successfully expressed and purified at high concentrations, DNA will be printed on microscope slides to create a protein microarray. This microarray will be used to screen HPV-positive patient sera for antibody biomarkers that may be indicative of cervical cancer and precancerous cervical neoplasias.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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HPV Antibodies as Novel Biomarkers for the Detection of Cervical Neoplasia

Description

Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of virtually all cervical cancer, with over 520,000 new cases and 275,000 deaths annually. Although there are at least 200 unique HPV

Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of virtually all cervical cancer, with over 520,000 new cases and 275,000 deaths annually. Although there are at least 200 unique HPV strains, only “high-risk” types, may progress to cancer. Serum antibodies to HPV oncoproteins are stable and specific markers that may be able to detect high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3). Biomarkers have potential as a rapid, point-of-care HPV screening tool for low resource areas in the way that traditional cytology cannot, and HPV DNA testing is not yet able to.
Methods: We have designed a multiplexed magnetics programmable bead ELISA (MagProBE) to profile the immune responses of the proteins from 11 high-risk HPV types and 2 low-risk types—106 genes in total. HPV genes were optimized for human expression and either built with PCR or commercially purchased, and cloned into the Gateway-compatible pANT7_cGST vector for in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) in a MagProBE array. Anti-GST antibody (Ab) labeling was then used to measure gene expression.
Results: 53/106 (50%) HPV genes have been cloned and tested for expression of protein. 91% of HPV proteins expressed at levels above the background control (MFI = 2288), and the mean expression was MFI = 4318. Codon-optimized genes have also shown a 20% higher expression over non-codon optimized genes.
Conclusion: Although this research is ongoing, it suggests that gene optimization may improve IVTT expression of HPV proteins in human HeLa lysate. Once the remaining HPV proteins have been expression confirmed, the cDNA for each gene will be printed onto slides and tested in serologic assays to identify potential Ab biomarkers to CIN3.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Surviving Cervical Cancer: A History of Prevention, Early Detection, and Treatment

Description

Cervical cancer, which many physicians of 2019 consider to be a success in terms of establishing widely used forms of early preventative and diagnostic technologies, experienced a reduction in incidence

Cervical cancer, which many physicians of 2019 consider to be a success in terms of establishing widely used forms of early preventative and diagnostic technologies, experienced a reduction in incidence rates in women by over fifty percent between 1975 and 2016. Cervical cancer does not often present in women with symptoms until it has entered a later stage of the disease. Because of this fact, in the early twentieth century, physicians were often only able to diagnose cervical cancer when either the woman reported complaints or there was a visual confirmation of lesions on the cervix. The symptoms women often reported included vague abdominal pain, bleeding after sex, and abnormal amounts of vaginal discharge, all of which are non-specific symptoms, making it even harder for women to be diagnosed with cervical cancer. This thesis answers the following question: How does the history of cervical cancer show that prevention helps reduce rates of cancer-related deaths among women? By studying the history of cervical cancer, people can understand how a cancer that was once one of the top killers of women in the US has declined to become one of the lowest through the establishment of and effective communication of early prevention and diagnostics, both among the general public and within the medical community itself. This thesis is organized based on key episodes which were pertinent to the history of cervical cancer, primarily within the United States and Europe. The episodes are organized in context of the shifts in thought regarding cervical cancer and include topics such as vaccine technologies like the Gardasil and Cervarix vaccines, social awareness movements that educated women on the importance of early detection, and analyses of the early preventative strategies and attempts at treating cervical cancer. After analyzing eleven key episodes, the thesis determined that, through the narrative of early attempts to treat cervical cancer, shifting the societal thought on cancer, evolving the importance of early detection, and, finally, obtaining a means of prevention, the history of cervical cancer does demonstrate that the development of preventative strategies has resulted in reducing cancer-related deaths among women. Understanding what it took for physicians to evolve from simply detecting cervical cancer to being able to prevent it entirely matters because it can change the way we think about managing other forms of cancer.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05