Matching Items (9)

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Codoping Zinc Oxide Nanowires

Description

The zinc oxide nanowires being grown are not developing properly and need to be fixed. In order to do this, the furnace equipment and experimental procedure must be tested until

The zinc oxide nanowires being grown are not developing properly and need to be fixed. In order to do this, the furnace equipment and experimental procedure must be tested until the results produced yield acceptable quality zinc oxide nanowires. After experimentation the nanowires were produced to an acceptable quality. With quality nanowires to experiment with, testing began to examine the effects of different thicknesses of aluminum dopants. Once doped and annealed, the wires were transferred to a substrate with a grid so contact points could be applied. However; the experiment was phased out once this step was half way complete due to the lab shifting to examine co-doping zinc oxide nanowires as explored in part two of this paper. The goal of co-doping zinc oxide film is to create an ideal p
type relationship for power generation, so this project focuses on altering the electrical properties of zinc oxide through doping that will allow more energy to be generated from the solar panels than current zinc oxide solar panels. The zinc oxide film doped with manganese was sputtered onto a silicon substrate. The experiment failed to create a co-doped sample because an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reading of the sample proved no nitrogen existed in the zinc oxide doped with manganese film. This experiment leads into this research teams work with co-doping, so instead of viewing this project as a failure it is seen as a learning experience. The research team is examining the results and creating new experiments to run to fix the problem. I currently work with my mentor Dr. Hongbin Yu and Seung Ho Ahn while doing research.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Electrical and Optical Characterization of Wide Band Gap Materials in the Zinc and Tin Oxynitride Family

Description

The investigation into wide band gap semiconductors for use in tandem solar cells has become an increasingly more researched area with many new absorbers outlining the landscape. Pairing silicon with

The investigation into wide band gap semiconductors for use in tandem solar cells has become an increasingly more researched area with many new absorbers outlining the landscape. Pairing silicon with another cheap wide band gap semiconductor absorber can generate more efficient solar cell, which could continue to drive up the energy output from solar. One such recently researched wide band gap absorber is ZnSnN2. ZnSnN2 proves too difficult to form under most conditions, but has the necessary band gap to make it a potential earth abundant solar absorber. The deposition process for ZnSnN2 is usually conducted with Zn and Sn metal targets while flowing N2 gas. Due to restrictions with chamber depositions, instead ZnO and SnO2 targets were sputtered with N2 gas to attempt to form separate zinc and tin oxynitrides as an initial single target study prior to future combinatorial studies. The electrical and optical properties and crystal structure of these thin films were analyzed to determine the nitrogen incorporation in the thin films through X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and 4-point probe measurements. The SnO2 thin films showed a clear response in the absorption coefficient leading but showed no observable XRD peak shift. Thus, it is unlikely that substantial amounts of nitrogen were incorporated into SnO¬2. ZnO showed a clear response increase in conductivity with N2 with an additional shift in the XRD peak at 300 °C and potential secondary phase peak. Nitrogen incorporation was achieved with fair amounts of certainty for the ZnO thin films.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanowire-Reinforced Shear Thickening Fluids for Enhanced Soft-Body Armor Applications

Description

The development of stab-resistant Kevlar armor has been an ongoing field of research
since the late 1990s, with the ultimate goal of improving the multi-threat capabilities of
traditional soft-body armor

The development of stab-resistant Kevlar armor has been an ongoing field of research
since the late 1990s, with the ultimate goal of improving the multi-threat capabilities of
traditional soft-body armor while significantly improving its protective efficiency - the amount
of layers of armor material required to defeat threats. To create a novel, superior materials
system to reinforce Kevlar armor for the Norica Capstone project, this thesis set out to
synthesize, recover, and characterize zinc oxide nanowire colloids.

The materials synthesized were successfully utilized in the wider Capstone effort to
dramatically enhance the protective abilities of Kevlar, while the data obtained on the 14
hydrothermal synthesis attempts and numerous challenges at recovery provided critical
information on the synthesis parameters involved in the reliable, scalable mass production of the
nanomaterial additive. Additionally, recovery was unconventionally facilitated in the absence of
a vacuum filtration apparatus with nanoscale filters by intentionally inducing electrostatic
agglomeration of the nanowires during standard gravity filtration. The subsequent application of
these nanowires constituted a pioneering use in the production of nanowire-reinforced
STF-based Kevlar coatings, and support the future development and, ultimately, the
commercialization of lighter and more-protective soft armor systems.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Study of interface adhesive properties of wurtzite materials for carbon fiber composites

Description

Recently, the use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires as an interphase in composite materials has been demonstrated to increase the interfacial shear strength between carbon fiber and an epoxy matrix.

Recently, the use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires as an interphase in composite materials has been demonstrated to increase the interfacial shear strength between carbon fiber and an epoxy matrix. In this research work, the strong adhesion between ZnO and carbon fiber is investigated to elucidate the interactions at the interface that result in high interfacial strength. First, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to calculate the adhesive energy between bare carbon and ZnO. Since the carbon fiber surface has oxygen functional groups, these were modeled and MD simulations showed the preference of ketones to strongly interact with ZnO, however, this was not observed in the case of hydroxyls and carboxylic acid. It was also found that the ketone molecules ability to change orientation facilitated the interactions with the ZnO surface. Experimentally, the atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the adhesive energy between ZnO and carbon through a liftoff test by employing highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate and a ZnO covered AFM tip. Oxygen functionalization of the HOPG surface shows the increase of adhesive energy. Additionally, the surface of ZnO was modified to hold a negative charge, which demonstrated an increase in the adhesive energy. This increase in adhesion resulted from increased induction forces given the relatively high polarizability of HOPG and the preservation of the charge on ZnO surface. It was found that the additional negative charge can be preserved on the ZnO surface because there is an energy barrier since carbon and ZnO form a Schottky contact. Other materials with the same ionic properties of ZnO but with higher polarizability also demonstrated good adhesion to carbon. This result substantiates that their induced interaction can be facilitated not only by the polarizability of carbon but by any of the materials at the interface. The versatility to modify the magnitude of the induced interaction between carbon and an ionic material provides a new route to create interfaces with controlled interfacial strength.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Environmental sensing applications of zinc oxide based film bulk acoustic resonator

Description

Different environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), relative humidity (RH) and the presence of reducing gases (acetone and ethanol), play an important role in the daily life of human

Different environmental factors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UV), relative humidity (RH) and the presence of reducing gases (acetone and ethanol), play an important role in the daily life of human beings. UV is very important in a number of areas, such as astronomy, resin curing of polymeric materials, combustion engineering, water purification, flame detection and biological effects with more recent proposals like early missile plume detection, secure space-to-space communications and pollution monitoring. RH is a very common parameter in the environment. It is essential not only for human comfort, but also for a broad spectrum of industries and technologies. There is a substantial interest in the development of RH sensors for applications in monitoring moisture level at home, in clean rooms, cryogenic processes, medical and food science, and so on. The concentration of acetone and other ketone bodies in the exhaled air can serve as an express noninvasive diagnosis of ketosis. Meanwhile, driving under the influence of alcohol is a serious traffic violation and this kind of deviant behavior causes many accidents and deaths on the highway. Therefore, the detection of ethanol in breath is usually used as a quick and reliable screening method for the sobriety checkpoint. Traditionally, semiconductor metal oxide sensors are the major candidates employed in the sensing applications mentioned above. However, they suffer from the low sensitivity, poor selectivity and huge power consumption. In this dissertation, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) was developed to monitor UV, RH, acetone and ethanol in the environment. FBAR generally consists of a sputtered piezoelectric thin film (ZnO/AlN) sandwiched between two electrodes. It has been well developed both as filters and as high sensitivity mass sensors in recent years. FBAR offers high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for various environment monitoring applications. As the sensing signal is in the frequency domain, FABR has the potential to be incorporated in a wireless sensor network for remote sensing. This study extended our current knowledge of FBAR and pointed out feasible directions for future exploration.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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1-dimensional zinc oxide nanomaterial growth and solar cell applications

Description

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide (ITO), graphene, and carbon nanotube film. It has been known as a conductive material when doped with elements such as indium, gallium and aluminum. The solubility of those dopant elements in ZnO is still debatable; but, it is necessary to find alternative conducting materials when their form is film or nanostructure for display devices. This is a consequence of the ever increasing price of indium. In addition, a new generation solar cell (nanostructured or hybrid photovoltaics) requires compatible materials which are capable of free standing on substrates without seed or buffer layers and have the ability introduce electrons or holes pathway without blocking towards electrodes. The nanostructures for solar cells using inorganic materials such as silicon (Si), titanium oxide (TiO2), and ZnO have been an interesting topic for research in solar cell community in order to overcome the limitation of efficiency for organic solar cells. This dissertation is a study of the rational solution-based synthesis of 1-dimentional ZnO nanomaterial and its solar cell applications. These results have implications in cost effective and uniform nanomanufacturing for the next generation solar cells application by controlling growth condition and by doping transition metal element in solution.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Synthesis and functionalization of zinc oxide nanowires

Description

Zinc oxide nanowires ( NWs) have broad applications in various fields such as nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, piezoelectric nanogenerators, chemical/biological sensors, and heterogeneous catalysis. To meet the requirements for broader applications, the

Zinc oxide nanowires ( NWs) have broad applications in various fields such as nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, piezoelectric nanogenerators, chemical/biological sensors, and heterogeneous catalysis. To meet the requirements for broader applications, the growth of high-quality ZnO NWs and functionalization of ZnO NWs are critical. In this work, specific types of functionalized ZnO NWs have been synthesized and correlations between specific structures and properties have been investigated. Deposition of δ-Bi2O3 (narrow band gap) epilayers onto ZnO (wide band gap) NWs improves the absorption efficiency of the visible light spectrum by 70%. Furthermore, the deposited δ-Bi2O3 grows selectively and epitaxially on the {11-20} but not on the {10-10} facets of the ZnO NWs. The selective epitaxial deposition and the interfacial structure were thoroughly investigated. The morphology and structure of the Bi2O3/ZnO nanocomposites can be tuned by controlling the deposition conditions.

Various deposition methods, both physical and chemical, were used to functionalize the ZnO NWs with metal or alloy nanoparticles (NPs) for catalytic transformations of important molecules which are relevant to energy and environment. Cu and PdZn NPs were epitaxially grown on ZnO NWs to make them resistant to sintering at elevated temperatures and thus improved the stability of such catalytic systems for methanol steam reforming (MSR) to produce hydrogen. A series of Pd/ZnO catalysts with different Pd loadings were synthesized and tested for MSR reaction. The CO selectivity was found to be strongly dependent on the size of the Pd: Both PdZn alloy and single Pd atoms yield low CO selectivity while Pd clusters give the highest CO selectivity.

By dispersing single Pd atoms onto ZnO NWs, Pd1/ZnO single-atom catalysts (SACs) was synthesized and their catalytic performance was evaluated for selected catalytic reactions. The experimental results show that the Pd1/ZnO SAC is active for CO oxidation and MSR but is not desirable other reactions. We further synthesized ZnO NWs supported noble metal (M1/ZnO; M=Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir) SACs and studied their catalytic performances for CO oxidation. The catalytic test data shows that all the fabricated noble metal SACs are active for CO oxidation but their activity are significantly different. Structure-performance relationships were investigated.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotubes-zinc oxide structure by drop-drying and ink jet printing

Description

This thesis elaborates the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and it is discussed in two parts. In the first part of the thesis, two types of CNTs inks for inkjet

This thesis elaborates the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and it is discussed in two parts. In the first part of the thesis, two types of CNTs inks for inkjet materials printer are prepared. They are both chemical stable and printable, effective and easily made. The sheet resistance of printed films decreases exponentially as the number of layers increases. In the second part of this study, CNTs/ZnO composite structures are fabricated to understand the electronic and optical properties. The materials were deposited by two different methods: drop-drying and RF magnetic sputtering system on flexible polymer substrates. To further increase the conductivity of the various layers of deposited CNTs films, electrical and optical characterizations are also done. This study establishes CNTs as a multi-functional semitransparent conductor, which can be deposited at room-temperature with other transparent conductive oxide (TCO) composites for application in flexible electronics and printed circuit and sensors.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Zinc oxide transparent thin films for optoelectronics

Description

The object of this body of work is to study the properties and suitability of zinc oxide thin films with a view to engineering them for optoelectronics applications, making them

The object of this body of work is to study the properties and suitability of zinc oxide thin films with a view to engineering them for optoelectronics applications, making them a cheap and effective alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO), the most used transparent conducting oxides in the industry. Initially, a study was undertaken to examine the behavior of silver contacts to ZnO and ITO during thermal processing, a step frequently used in materials processing in optoelectronics. The second study involved an attempt to improve the conductivity of ZnO films by inserting a thin copper layer between two ZnO layers. The Hall resistivity of the films was as low as 6.9×10-5 -cm with a carrier concentration of 1.2×1022 cm-3 at the optimum copper layer thickness. The physics of conduction in the films has been examined. In order to improve the average visible transmittance, we replaced the copper layer with gold. The films were then found to undergo a seven orders of magnitude drop in effective resistivity from 200 -cm to 5.2×10-5 -cm The films have an average transmittance between 75% and 85% depending upon the gold thickness, and a peak transmittance of up to 93%. The best Haacke figure of merit was 15.1×10-3 . Finally, to test the multilayer transparent electrodes on a device, ZnO/Au/ZnO (ZAZ) electrodes were evaluated as transparent electrodes for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). The electrodes exhibited substantially enhanced conductivity (about 8×10-5 -cm) over conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes (about 3.2×10-5 -cm). OLEDs fabricated with the ZAZ electrodes showed reduced leakage compared to control OLEDs on ITO and reduced ohmic losses at high current densities. At a luminance of 25000 cd/m2, the lum/W efficiency of the ZAZ electrode based device improved by 5% compared to the device on ITO. A normalized intensity graph of the colour output from the green OLEDs shows that ZAZ electrodes allow for a broader spectral output in the green wavelength region of peak photopic sensitivity compared to ITO. The results have implications for electrode choice in display technology.

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Date Created
  • 2010